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Table 4 Longitudinal Analysis of Stunting Malnutrition, by Child Caries Increment

From: Early childhood caries and malnutrition: baseline and two-year follow-up results of a community-based prevention intervention in Rural Ecuador

Caries Increment Number (%) of Children with HAZ < −2 Z Mean HAZ score (SD)
Baseline Follow-up Absolute change Proportionate changea P-valueb Baseline Follow-up Mean change Effect sizec P-valued
  N % N % % % Mean SD Mean SD
Low (0–2 dmft/year) 28 48.3 16 29.1 −19.2 −39.8 0.064/
0.039
−1.6 1.3 −1.6 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.070
Medium (3–5 dmft/year) 16 39.0 7 19.4 −19.6 −54.3 0.065/
0.035
−1.7 0.9 −1.3 0.8 +0.4 0.4 0.003
High (≥6 dmft/year) 22 35.5 17 29.8 −5.7 −16.1 0.549/
0.366
−1.6 1.0 −1.5 0.9 +0.1 0.1 0.030
Total 66 41.0 40 24.8 −16.2 −39.5 0.005/
0.003
−1.6 1.1 −1.5 0.9 +0.1 0.1 <0.001
  1. aCalculated by dividing the change in prevalence by the baseline prevalence and expressing it as a percentage
  2. bP-values presented are based on McNemar test (first) and Cochran’s Q test (second)
  3. cEffect size; 0.2–0.4 is considered to be ‘small’; 0.5–0.7 is ‘Moderate’; and more than 0.8 is considered to be ‘large’
  4. dP-values presented are based on Wilcoxon rank sum test