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Table 6 Associations between dietary patterns and biomarkers of nutrition status and cardiovascular risk factors, regression analysis

From: Associations between dietary patterns and biomarkers of nutrient status and cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents in Germany (KiGGS)

  Boys Girls
Model 1a Model 2b   Model 1a Model 2b
Dietary pattern ‘Western’ ‘Traditional’ ‘Healthy’ ‘Western’ ‘Traditional’ ‘Healthy’   ‘Western and traditional’ ‘Healthy’ ‘Western and traditional’ ‘Healthy’
Parameter β P for trend β P for trend β P for trend β P for trend β P for trend β P for trend   β P for trend β P for trend β P for trend β P for trend
Folate 1 (ng/ml)c -0.4 0.093 -0.4 0.066 0.3 0.022 -0.4 0.169 -0.8 0.001 0.5 0.001   -0.4 0.042 0.1 0.751 -0.4 0.122 -0.2 0.382
N = 1364              N = 1203         
Folate 2 (ng/ml)c -0.4 0.093 -0.5 0.010 -0.1 0.807 -0.2 0.531 -0.4 0.147 0.2 0.465   -0.4 0.025 0.6 0.028 -1.1 0.003 0.8 0.017
N = 778              N = 714         
Vitamin B12 (ng/l)c -14.6 0.049 -2.0 0.731 12.4 0.017 -19.8 0.052 -5.2 0.467 11.8 0.053   -18.4 0.013 20.0 0.002 -16.7 0.108 16.3 0.044
N = 2151              N = 1920         
Ferritin (μg/l)d -1.9 0.145 1.4 0.166 0.1 0.911 -2.8 0.021 1.7 0.210 0.6 0.515   -0.0 0.984 1.1 0.126 -0.4 0.659 1.8 0.053
N = 2237              N = 1992         
Systolic blood pressure (mmHG)e -0.8 0.069 -0.4 0.250 0.6 0.045 -0.7 0.107 0.2 0.571 0.6 0.078   -0.3 0.302 0.7 0.015 -0.8 0.066 0.4 0.370
N = 2297              N = 2024         
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHG)e 0.3 0.000 -0.2 0.412 0.2 0.372 -1.1 0.002 0.3 0.290 0.2 0.396   -0.2 0.397 0.3 0.196 -0.2 0.525 0.3 0.310
N = 2297              N = 2024         
Total Cholesterol (mg/dl)f -0.7 0.537 0.1 0.905 0.7 0.389 -0.5 0.741 1.0 0.310 0.3 0.685   -1.4 0.137 -0.8 0.367 0.0 0.969 -1.0 0.337
N = 2307              N = 1743         
HDL-C (mg/dl)f 0.7 0.139 0.2 0.585 -0.7 0.034 0.8 0.109 -0.2 0.654 -0.1 0.718   -0.4 0.416 -1.0 0.010 0.5 0.360 -0.1 0.827
N = 2307              N = 1743         
LDL-C (mg/dl)f 0.2 0.861 0.0 0.948 0.8 0.209 0.1 0.911 0.7 0.409 0.3 0.645   -1.7 0.065 -0.5 0.516 -0.6 0.620 -0.4 0.739
N = 2308              N = 1743         
Homocysteine (μmol/l) 0.2 0.166 0.2 0.182 -0.4 0.000 0.1 0.345 0.1 0.435 -0.4 0.000   0.3 <.000 -0.3 <.000 0.3 0.003 -0.3 0.000
N = 2305              N = 2021         
Uric acid (mg/dl) 0.0 0.824 0.0 0.181 0.0 0.945 0.0 0.751 0.0 0.386 0.0 0.842   0.0 0.824 0.0 0.245 0.0 0.463 0.1 0.118
N = 2315              N = 2036         
HbA1c (%)g 0.0 0.673 0.0 0.107 0.0 0.742 0.0 0.923 0.0 0.240 0.0 0.638   0.0 0.586 0.0 0.726 0.0 0.214 0.0 0.811
N = 2306              N = 2023         
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, HbA1c Glycohaemoglobin, HDL-C High density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. aModel 1: adjusted for age (years)
  3. bModel 2: adjusted for age (years), hours physical acitivty per week (continuous), smoking status (yes/no), regular alcohol consumption (yes/no), and total energy intake (continous). Analysis concerning blood lipids and blood pressure were additionally adjusted for BMI.
  4. cwithout persons with vitamin supplement use
  5. dwithout persons with mineral supplement use
  6. ewithout persons with cardiovascular medication
  7. fwithout persons with hormonal contraceptive use
  8. gwithout persons with diabetes or diabetes medication
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