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Table 4 Relationship between mean weight –for-height z-score (WHZ) and selected variables among children aged 6–59 months

From: The effect of maternal and child factors on stunting, wasting and underweight among preschool children in Northern Ghana

Indicator N Mean WHZ Std. Deviation 95% Confidence Interval for Mean p value
  Lower Bound Upper Bound
Child currently breastfeeding? <0.001
 No 208 −0.41 0.94 −0.54 −0.28
 Yes 217 −0.87 1.20 −1.03 −0.71
Age of child (months) <0.001
 6–8 46 −0.82 1.02 −1.12 −0.52
 9–11 30 −1.32 1.27 −1.79 −0.85
 12–23 142 −0.76 1.197 −0.96 −0.57
 24–59 207 −0.43 0.98 −0.56 −0.29
Gender of child 0.06
 Male 216 −0.74 1.19 −0.90 −0.59
 Female 209 −0.54 1.01 −0.68 −0.40
Timing of first complementary food at 6 months 0.8
 No 263 −0.64 1.059 −0.76 −0.51
 Yes 162 −0.66 1.18 −0.84 −0.48
Minimum meal frequency 0.7
 No 190 −0.62 1.09 −0.77 −0.46
 Yes 235 −0.67 1.12 −0.81 −0.52
Minimum dietary diversity <0.001
 Less than 4 groups 154 −0.98 1.17 −1.17 −0.79
 At least 4 groups 271 −0.45 1.02 −0.58 −0.33
Minimum acceptable diet 0.13
 No 251 −0.71 1.13 −0.85 −0.57
 Yes 174 −0.55 1.06 −0.71 −0.39
Classification of household wealth index 0.3
 Low 268 −0.60 1.07 −0.73 −0.47
 High 157 −0.72 1.16 −0.91 −0.54
Maternal height (cm) 0.2
  < 150 17 −0.56 1.12 −1.14 0.02
 150–154 57 −0.91 1.20 −1.23 −0.60
 155–159 129 −0.54 1.08 −0.72 −0.35
 At least 160 222 −0.65 1.09 −0.79 −0.50
Classification of birth weight 0.1
 Normal (≥2.5 kg) 170 −0.56 1.03 −0.71 −0.40
 Low birth weight (<2.5 kg) 23 −0.90 1.06 −1.36 −0.44
Consumption of staples in the past 24 h prior to study 0.1
 No 43 −0.93 1.26 −1.32 −0.54
 Yes 382 −0.61 1.08 −0.72 −0.50
Consumption of animal source foods in the past 24 h prior to study <0.001
 No 94 −1.01 1.20 −1.25 −0.76
 Yes 331 −0.54 1.06 −0.66 −0.43
Consumption of legumes foods in the past 24 h prior to study <0.001
 No 211 −0.84 1.08 −0.99 −0.69
 Yes 214 −0.45 1.10 −0.60 −0.30