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Table 3 Least square means and standard errors for secondary outcomes over time by trial arm

From: Outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers’ market fruit and vegetable purchases and consumption among women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

  Least square means and standard errors
  Posttest 3-month follow-up 6-month follow-up
  WFS WFSV EHE EHEV WFS WFSV EHE EHEV WFS WFSV EHE EHEV
Knowledge of the FMNP 4.88 (.08) 5.07 (.07) 4.45 (.08) 4.85 (.07) 4.79 (.09) 5.07 (.08) 4.71 (.09) 5.01 (.08) 4.67 (.10) 5.11 (.09) 4.82 (.10) 4.90 (.09)
Attitudes towards FMFV 12.27 (.66) 11.05 (.59) 10.70 (.65) 11.10 (.60) 11.92 (.70) 10.24 (.65) 11.48 (.73) 11.42 (.63) 12.03 (.78) 10.19 (.73) 11.45 (.81) 12.27 (.70)
FV food safety skills 67.80 (.92) 68.47 (.82) 63.99 (.91) 63.49 (.84) 66.70 (.98) 66.58 (.91) 64.13 (1.01) 62.59 (.88) 69.11 (1.10) 66.44 (1.02) 66.13 (1.13) 65.23 (.98)
FM-specific knowledge 1.37 (.08) 1.65 (.07) 1.39 (.09) 1.51 (.08) 1.42 (.09) 1.75 (.08) 1.51 (.10) 1.63 (.08) 1.51 (.10) 1.69 (.09) 1.35 (.11) 1.68 (.09)
FM asking skills .55 (.33) .92 (.25) .45 (.32) 1.14 (.28) .49 (.35) .85 (.33) 1.31 (.56) .68 (.34) 1.29 (.40) 1.31 (.45) 1.30 (.59) 1.66 (.46)
Familiarity with LGSI 2.81 (.05) 2.82 (.04) 2.70 (.05) 2.67 (.04) 2.79 (.05) 2.86 (.05) 2.76 (.05) 2.75 (.05) 2.81 (.06) 2.93 (.05) 2.80 (.06) 2.70 (.05)
Knowledge of LGSI found at FM in July 8.08 (.11) 8.22 (.11) 7.99 (.11) 7.80 (.10) 8.14 (.12) 7.91 (.11) 7.85 (.12) 7.95 (.11) 8.17 (.13) 8.17 (.12) 7.98 (.14) 8.05 (.12)
Food-specific knowledge 10.42 (.14) 10.31 (.13) 9.47 (.14) 9.33 (.13) 9.76 (.15) 10.11 (.14) 9.40 (.16) 9.31 (.14) 9.83 (.17) 10.01 (.16) 9.92 (.18) 9.44 (.15)
Positive outcome expectations 2.91 (.03) 2.93 (.03) 2.86 (.03) 2.88 (.03) 2.85 (.03) 2.92 (.03) 2.92 (.04) 2.90 (.03) 2.95 (.04) 2.97 (.04) 2.97 (.04) 2.96 (.03)
FMFV preparation skills 72.50 (.02) 72.19 (.82) 71.72 (.91) 69.63 (.84) 73.06 (.98) 72.33 (.90) 72.53 (1.01) 71.55 (.97) 73.27 (1.09) 72.99 (1.01) 73.07 (1.13) 71.40 (.97)
  1. WFS indicates WIC Fresh Start, WFSV WIC Fresh Start plus Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program vouchers, EHE online existing health education, EHEV online existing health education plus Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program vouchers, FMNP Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program, FM farmers’ market, FV fruit and vegetable(s), LGSI locally grown, seasonal items. Least square means and standard errors were derived from linear mixed effects models that controlled for baseline measures of each outcome and pregnancy status, breastfeeding status, receiving assistance other than WIC, and social desirability trait. Means highlighted in bold differ significantly from one another. Differences consistent with a priori hypotheses (WFSV > WFS, EHE, and EHEV) are reported. Knowledge of the FMNP: WFSV > EHE, EHEV (posttest); WFSV > WFS, EHE; WFS > EHEV (3-month follow-up); WFSV > WFS, EHE (6-month follow-up). FV food safety skills: WFSV > EHE, EHEV (posttest); WFSV > EHE, EHEV (3-month follow-up); WFS > EHE, EHEV (6-month follow-up). Farmers’ market-specific knowledge: WFSV > WFS, EHE (posttest); WFSV > WFS, EHE (3-month follow-up). Familiarity with locally grown, seasonal items: WFSV > EHEV (6-month follow-up). Knowledge of locally grown, seasonal items found at farmers’ markets in July: WFSV > EHEV (posttest). Food-specific knowledge: WFSV > EHE, EHEV (posttest); WFSV > WFS, EHE, EHEV (3-month follow-up); WFSV > EHEV (6-month follow-up). Farmers’ market FV preparation skills: WFSV > EHEV (posttest)