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Table 6 Determinant factors of chronic energy deficiency of lactating women from lowland and highland communities of district Raya Alamata, Southern Tigiray, Ethiopia, 2014

From: Comparison of nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women between lowland and highland communities of District Raya, Alamata, Southern Tigiray, Ethiopia

Variables Chronic energy deficiency
Lowland Highland
No Yes Crude Adjusted No Yes Crude Adjusted
N (%) N (%) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) N (%) N (%) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age
  < 25 67(74.4%) 23(25.6%) 1 1 59(72.8%) 22(27.2%)   
 25–35 93(86.9%) 14(13.1%) 0.439(0.21, 0.91)* 0.139(0.036, 0.540)** 92(79.3%) 24(20.7%)   
  > 35 28(90.3%) 3(9.7%) 0.3(.087, 1.12)* 0.106(0.01, 1.05) 21(67.7%) 10(32.3%)   
Family size
  < = 3 35(74.5%) 12(25.5%) 1 1 26(65.0%) 14(35.0%)   
 4–6 101(84.9%) 18(15.1%) 0.52(0.22, 1.18)* 0.41(0.10, 1.66) 104(78.2%) 29(21.8%)   
  > = 7 52(83.9%) 10(16.1%) 0.56(0.21, 1.43)* 0.90(0.12, 6.74) 42(76.4%) 13(23.6%)   
Maternal education
 Illiterate 111(83.5%) 22(16.5%) 1 1 125(74.9%) 42(25.1%)   
 Read and write 20(83.3%) 4(16.7%) 1.0(0.31, 3.24) 0.89(0.13, 5.77) 18(85.7%) 3(14.3%)   
 Elementary school 21(91.3%) 2(8.7%) 0.48(0.105, 2.19) 0.20(0.02, 1.59) 11(68.8%) 5(31.2%)   
 Junior and above 36(75.0%) 12(25.0%) 1.68(0.75, 3.73)* 0.39(0.08, 1.94) 18(75.0%) 6(25.0%)   
Husband education
 Illiterate 92(85.2%) 16(14.8%) 1 1 78(81.2%) 18(18.8%) 1 1
 Read and write 38(80.9%) 9(19.1%) 1.36(0.55, 3.34) 2.72(0.73, 10.05) 39(75.0%) 13(25.0%) 1.44(0.64, 3.2) 1.19(0.47, 3.01)
 Elementary school 12(80.0%) 3(20.0%) 1.43(0.36, 5.66) 1.09(0.13, 9.14) 17(68.0%) 8(32.0%) 2.0(0.76, 5.4)* 1.86(0.62, 5.6)
 Junior and above 24(75.0%) 8(25.0%) 1.91(0.73, 5.00)* 1.84(0.42, 8.08) 21(70.0%) 9(30.0%) 1.8(0.73, 4.7)* 2.32(0.71, 7.56)
Husband occupation
 Farmer 100(81.3%) 23(18.7%) 1 1 102(81.0%) 24(19.0%)   
 Merchant/trade 24(77.4%) 7(22.6%) 1.26(0.48, 3.29) 1.06(0.26, 4.23) 25(71.4%) 10(28.6%)   
 Private org. Employee 23(92.0%) 2(8.0%) 0.37(0.08, 1.71)* 0.105(0.016, .694)** 15(60.0%) 10(40.0%)   
 Other 19(82.6%) 4(17.4%) 0.91(0.28, 2.94) 0.32(0.06, 1.51) 13(76.5%) 4(23.5%)   
Have TV/Radio/Mobile
 No 62(82.7%) 13(17.3%)    99(72.3%) 38(27.7%) 1.55(0.8, 2.9)* 1.83(0.79, 4.27)
 Yes 126(82.4%) 27(17.6%)    73 (80.2%) 18 (19.8%) 1 1
Supplementing vitamin A
 No 85(77.3%) 25(22.7%) 2.02(1.01, 4.07)* 2.78(1.1, 7.4)** 111(76.6%) 34(23.4%)   
 Yes 103(87.3%) 15(12.7%) 1 1 61(73.5%) 22(26.5%)   
Parity
  < = 2 74(78.7%) 20(21.3%) 1 1 58(70.7%) 24(29.3%) 1 1
 3–6 95(86.4%) 15(13.6%) 0.58(0.28, 1.21)* 0.67(0.15, 2.86) 102(81.0%) 24(19.0%) 0.56(0.2, 1.0)* 0.45(0.2, 0.9)**
  > = 7 19(79.2%) 5(20.8%) 0.97(0.32, 2.93) 2.22(0.19, 24.79) 12(60.0%) 8(40.0%) 1.61(0.58, 4.4) 1.14(0.32, 4.03)
Frequency of meal
 Two times a day 27(84.4%) 5(15.6%)    27(55.1%) 22(44.9%) 3.7(1.87, 7.5)* 4.4(1.8, 10.3)**
 Three times a day 136(81.9%) 30(18.1%)    125(82.2%) 27(17.8%) 1 1
  > Three times a day 25(83.3%) 5(16.7%)    20(74.1%) 7(25.9%) 1.62(0.62, 4.2) 1.89(0.61, 5.85)
Consume extra meal
 No 90(71.4%) 36(28.6%) 10.01(3.42, 29.2)* 20.64(5.2, 81.7)** 93(68.9%) 42(31.1%)   
 Yes 97(96.0%) 4(4.0%) 1 1 79(84.9%) 14(15.1%)   
Type of salt used
 Rock Salt 15(88.2%) 2(11.8%)    43(65.2%) 23(34.8%) 2.1(1.09, 4.2)* 2.45(1.04, 6.0)**
 Powdered Salt 37(78.7%) 10(21.3%)    19(73.1%) 7(26.9%) 1.49(0.55, 3.9) 1.41(0.38, 5.20)
 Imported iodized salt 17(73.9%) 6(26.1%)    17(85.0%) 3(15.0%) 0.71(0.19, 2.6) 0.80(0.18, 3.48)
 Local packed iodized salt 119(84.4%) 22(15.6%)    93(80.2%) 23(19.8%) 1 1
Liquid waste disposal
 Open field 51(81.0%) 12(19.0%)    103(71.0%) 42(29.0%) 2.0(1.02, 3.9)* 1.76(0.72, 4.3)
 In a pit 137(83.0%) 28(17.0%)    69(83.1%) 14(16.9%) 1 1
Time taken to fetch water
 0–15 min 60(78.9%) 16(21.1%)    64(71.1%) 26(28.9%) 1 1
 16–30 min 25(78.1%) 7(21.9%)    47(75.8%) 15(24.2%) 0.78(0.37, 1.6) 0.55(0.21, 1.41)
  > = 30 min 17(68.0%) 8(32.0%)    61(80.3%) 15(19.7%) 0.6(0.29, 1.2)* 0.43(0.18, 1.04)
  1. *P-value <0.25 in the bivariate analysis
  2. **P-value <0.05 in the multivariable analysis