Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics of whole grain versus refined grain consumers by sex

From: National pattern of grain products consumption among Canadians in association with body weight status

Consumers’ characteristics Whole grain (%) Refined grain (%)
Male Female Male Female
Country of Origin
 Canadian born 43.7 56.3 51.0 49.0
 Non-Canadian born 41.0 59.0 52.3 47.7
Household Income
 Lower 21.7 78.3a 41.7 58.3a
 Lower middle 37.0 63.0a 49.8 50.2
 Upper middle 50.4 49.6 53.3 46.7a
 High 45.7 54.3a 54.8 45.2a
Food Security
 Food secure 41.3 58.7 52.1 47.9
 Food insecure without hunger 40.8 59.2 48.6 51.4
 Food insecure with hunger 38.5 61.5 44.4 55.6
Education
 Less than secondary 46.2 53.8 51.7 48.3
 Secondary 35.4 65.6 47.5 52.5
 Some post-secondary 43.9 56.1 53.9 46.1
 Post-secondary 30.2 69.8 53.3 46.7
Physical Activity
 Active 46.6 53.4 59.0 41.0a
 Moderate 36.9 63.1 53.5 46.5a
 Inactive 41.6 58.4 49.2 50.8
BMI Classification
 Normal 30.1 69.9 51.2 48.9
 Overweight 57.9 42.1 58.2 41.8
 Obese 41.3 58.7 51.8 48.2
  1. a Significant sex difference at p < 0.05 (Pearson chi-square test)