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Table 3 Longitudinal associations between skipping breakfast aged 8-9 years and teacher-reported behavior aged 10-11 years (N = 1665)

From: Skipping breakfast among 8-9 year old children is associated with teacher-reported but not objectively measured academic performance two years later

Behavior subscale and category of skipping breakfast    Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
n Mean ± SDa Diff (95% CI)e Diff (95% CI)e Diff (95% CI)e
Internalizing problems
 Never skipped 1481 2.22 ± 2.92 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 177 2.40 ± 3.03 0.35 (−0.30, 1.00) 0.28 (−0.32, 0.88) 0.17 (−0.74, 1.07)
P-value    0.29 0.36 0.72
Externalizing problems
 Never skipped 1481 2.85 ± 3.52 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 177 3.08 ± 3.69 1.73 (−1.28, 4.74) 1.13 (−1.46, 3.71) 0.14 (−0.37, 0.64)
P-value    0.26 0.39 0.60
Prosocial behavior
 Never skipped 1486 7.97 ± 2.17 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 179 7.66 ± 2.21 −0.31 (−0.58, −0.05) −0.26 (−0.51, −0.01) −0.26 (−0.56, 0.03)
P-value    0.02 0.04 0.08
  1. aValues are the unadjusted mean ± SD score for the three scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Better behavior is indicated by lower scores for internalizing problems (range 0 – 18) and externalizing problems (range 0 – 20) and higher scores for prosocial behavior (range 0 – 10)
  2. bModel 1: adjusted for sex and age at interview
  3. cModel 2: adjusted for sex, age at interview and SES (measured at Wave 3)
  4. dModel 3: Model 2 plus the following additional covariates internalizing problems – two-parent home, self-reported health of primary caregiver, smoking status of primary caregiver, financial hardship, reading progress; externalizing problems – self-reported health of primary caregiver, smoking status of primary caregiver, financial hardship, reading progress; prosocial behavior – two parent home, reading progress
  5. eDifferences between breakfast skippers and breakfast eaters were calculated using linear regression