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Table 4 Longitudinal associations between skipping breakfast aged 8-9 years and national standardized test (Year-5 NAPLAN) results (N = 2158)

From: Skipping breakfast among 8-9 year old children is associated with teacher-reported but not objectively measured academic performance two years later

NAPLAN variable and category of skipping breakfast    Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
n Mean ± SDa Diff (95% CI)e Diff (95% CI)e Diff (95% CI)e
Reading
 Never skipped 1923 520 ± 79.4 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 227 510 ± 82.1 −15.3 (−27.2, −3.3) −10.7 (−21.4, 0.02) −9.2 (−19.7, 1.3)
P-value    0.01 0.05 0.09
Writing
 Never skipped 1904 502 ± 69.2 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 225 500 ± 64.1 −6.2 (−15.5, 3.1) −2.1 (−10.8, 6.5) −0.8 (−9.5, 7.9)
P-value    0.19 0.63 0.86
Spelling
 Never skipped 1922 502 ± 65.8 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 227 496 ± 69.1 −10.3 (−20.8, 0.2) −7.4 (−17.2, 2.5) −6.0 (−15.8, 3.8)
P-value    0.05 0.14 0.23
Grammar
 Never skipped 1922 528 ± 79.2 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 227 520 ± 93.8 −17.4 (−31.8, −3.0) −12.8 (−25.7, 0.1) −10.7 (−23.6, 2.1)
P-value    0.02 0.05 0.10
Numeracy
 Never skipped 1917 513 ± 70.5 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref) 0.00 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 227 502 ± 84.1 −18.6 (−32.7, −4.5) −14.2 (−26.9, −1.6) −13.0 (−25.6, −0.8)
P-value    0.01 0.03 0.04
  1. NAPLAN National Assessment Program – Literacy And Numeracy, SES socioeconomic status
  2. aValues are the unadjusted mean ± SD score for each domain of the NAPLAN assessments. Possible score range 0-1000, higher scores indicate better academic performance
  3. bModel 1: adjusted for age and sex
  4. cModel 2: adjusted for age, sex and SES (measured at Wave 3)
  5. dModel 3: Model 2 plus the following additional covariates: Reading – smoking status of primary caregiver; Writing – smoking status of primary caregiver, self-reported health of primary caregiver; Spelling smoking status of primary caregiver, two-parent home status; Grammar – smoking status of primary caregiver, financial hardship; Numeracy – smoking status of primary caregiver
  6. eDifferences between breakfast skippers and breakfast eaters were calculated using linear regression