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Table 5 The multivariate (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals) associations between the household, maternal, and child characteristics and the nutritional status of the children

From: Predictors of poor nutritional status among children aged 6–24 months in agricultural regions of Mali: a cross-sectional study

Household Characteristics Underweight WAZWHO Stunted HAZWHO Wasted WHZWHO Wasted MUAC < 115 cm
N 1815 1815 1815 1815
Months of inadequate household food provision
 0 months 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 1–3 months 1.06 (0.80–1.41) 0.97 (0.74–1.27) 0.83 (0.60–1.16) 0.91 (0.65–1.26)
 4+ months 1.50 (1.03–2.18) 1.25 (0.86–1.84) 1.02 (0.66–1.60) 1.80 (1.20–2.71)
P trend 0.06 0.38 0.80 0.03
Household food insecurity access score categories
 Food secure access 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Mildly food secure access 1.12 (0.68–1.84) 1.06 (0.65–1.71) 0.71 (0.39–1.28) 1.04 (0.62–1.75)
 Moderately food insecure 1.27 (0.89–1.81) 1.16 (0.83–1.65) 0.77 (0.50–1.16) 0.67 (0.44–1.01)
 Severely food insecure access 1.08 (0.75–1.56) 1.12 (0.79–1.58) 0.68 (0.45–1.02) 0.85 (0.58–1.23)
P trend 0.61 0.47 0.08 0.21
Household dietary diversity score tertiles
 First 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Second 0.82 (0.61–1.08) 0.80 (0.60–1.05) 0.97 (0.70–1.35) 0.92 (0.67–1.26)
 Third 0.84 (0.63–1.11) 0.71 (0.53–0.94) 0.71 (0.50–1.02) 0.83 (0.59–1.16)
P trend 0.18 0.01 0.07 0.27
Household amenities score quartiles
 First quartile 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Second quartile 0.89 (0.65–1.21) 0.67 (0.50–0.92) 0.97 (0.66–1.44) 0.86 (0.60–1.24)
 Third quartile 0.77 (0.55–1.07) 0.68 (0.50–0.95) 1.09 (0.73–1.62) 0.81 (0.55–1.19)
 Forth quartile 0.81 (0.58–1.13) 0.52 (0.37–0.73) 1.18 (0.78–1.81) 0.85 (0.59–1.23)
P trend 0.15 0.002 0.37 0.34
Fence around the household
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 1.13 (0.87–1.46) 0.94 (0.73–1.21) 1.20 (0.88–1.64) 0.76 (0.56–1.02)
P 0.35 0.62 0.24 0.06
The household owns livestock
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.93 (0.71–1.22) 1.27 (0.98–1.64) 0.70 (0.51–0.96) 0.88 (0.65–1.20)
P 0.60 0.06 0.03 0.43
Garbage in a trash dump outside the household
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 1.44 (0.84–2.45) 1.13 (0.69–1.86) 1.94 (0.98–3.87) 0.83 (0.51–1.36)
P 0.18 0.62 0.06 0.08
Region
 Mopti 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Sikasso 1.4 (0.91–1.69) 1.46 (1.08–1.97) 0.64 (0.45–0.90) 1.37 (0.96–1.96)
P 0.17 0.01 0.01 0.08
Number of children alive
 1–2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 3–4 0.88 (0.66–1.17) 0.75 (0.57–0.99) 0.99 (0.69–1.42) 1.03 (0.74–1.45)
 5+ 0.94 (0.71–1.25) 0.90 (0.68–1.18) 1.02 (0.73–1.43) 1.43 (1.03–1.97)
P trend 0.69 0.13 0.89 0.03
Age class of children (months)
 6–11 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 12–17 1.34 (1.02–1.77) 2.00 (1.50–2.66) 1.37 (1.00–1.87) 0.78 (0.58–1.06)
 18–24 1.20 (0.87–1.66) 3.61 (2.63–4.95) 0.64 (0.41–0.99) 0.37 (0.24–0.57)
P trend 0.19 0.001 0.10 0.001
Sex of child
 Girl 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Boy 1.78 (1.40–2.25) 1.73 (1.37–2.17) 1.46 (1.10–1.94) 0.71 (0.55–0.94)
P 0.001 0.001 0.008 0.015
Child born at term
  < 37 weeks 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  ≥ 37 weeks 0.77 (0.51–1.15) 1.32 (0.84–2.08) 0.74 (0.47–1.15) 0.62 (0.40–0.95)
P 0.20 0.22 0.18 0.03
The child is still breastfed
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 1.02 (0.68–1.53) 1.13 (0.78–1.63) 0.92 (0.54–1.58) 0.74 (0.45–1.23)
P 0.93 0.53 0.76 0.24
Deworming therapy during the last 6 months
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.92 (0.71–1.19) 0.82 (0.64–1.05) 0.88 (0.64–1.21) 0.90 (0.67–1.22)
P 0.42 0.12 0.28 0.054
Diarrhea during the past 2 weeks
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.88 (0.66–1.18) 0.64 (0.49–0.85) 0.83 (0.59–1.15) 0.84 (0.61–1.15)
P 0.40 0.002 0.26 0.27
  1. Each model was further adjusted for the presence or absence of fever or coughs during the past two weeks, and the educational level of mothers
  2. Data are odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals
  3. The significance level was set at 0.05 for all the tests