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Table 1 Study Participant and Maternal Characteristics, Food Group Consumption and Young Child Feeding Index Components by Site

From: Associations between feeding practices and growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months among children living in low- and low-middle income countries who participated in the BRAIN-HIT trial

Measures Subgroup Statistic All study participants N = 371 Zambia N = 92 India N = 159 Pakistan N = 120 P-value*
Study participant characteristics
 Intervention group Early developmental intervention n (%) 186 (50) 44 (48) 80 (50) 62 (52) 0.86
Control   185 (50) 48 (52) 79 (50) 58 (48)  
 Child sex Male n (%) 218 (60) 53 (58) 96 (60) 69 (61) 0.87
Female   146 (40) 39 (42) 63 (40) 44 (39)  
 Premature birth Yes n (%) 50 (14) 3 (3) 12 (8) 35 (29) < 0.01
No   318 (86) 87 (97) 146 (92) 85 (71)  
 Birth weight(g)   N 360 92 159 109  
  Mean (SD) 2760 (504) 3159 (444) 2694 (367) 2517 (528) < 0.01
  Median 2700 3100 2600 2500  
  Min, Max 1500, 4500 2000, 4500 1600, 3800 1500, 3600  
 Resuscitated Yes n (%) 154 (42) 35 (38) 80 (50) 39 (33) < 0.01
No   217 (58) 57 (62) 79 (50) 81 (68)  
 Exclusively breastfed first 6 months Yes n (%) 232 (63) 88 (96) 132 (83) 12 (10) < 0.01
No   139 (37) 4 (4) 27 (17) 108 (90)  
Maternal characteristics
 SES by wealth index terciles Low (SES score < = − 1.3) n (%) 176 (47) 28 (30) 74 (47) 74 (62) < 0.01
Medium (−1.3 < SES score < 2.8)   162 (44) 42 (46) 77 (48) 43 (36)  
High (SES score > =2.8)   33 (9) 22 (24) 8 (5) 3 (3)  
 Maternal age (years)   N 371 92 159 120  
  Mean (SD) 24.9 (5.3) 25.2 (6.7) 22.8 (3.0) 27.4 (5.2) < 0.01
  Median 24 24 22 27  
  Min, Max 15, 44 15, 42 18, 32 17, 44  
 Maternal education (years) No formal education, illiterate n (%) 170 (48) 6 (7) 58 (38) 106 (97) < 0.01
Literate, primary   107 (30) 49 (54) 57 (37) 1 (1)  
Secondary, university   76 (22) 35 (39) 39 (25) 2 (2)  
 Married Yes n (%) 349 (98) 86 (93) 154 (100) 109 (100) < 0.01
No   6 (2) 6 (7) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Parity 1 to 2 n (%) 202 (55) 55 (61) 107 (68) 40 (33) < 0.01
3 to 4   98 (27) 16 (18) 48 (30) 34 (28)  
5+   68 (18) 19 (21) 3 (2) 46 (38)  
Child food consumption at 36 months
 Grains, roots and tubers Yes n (%) 371 (100) 92 (100) 159 (100) 120 (100) N/A
 Fruits and vegetables Yes n (%) 341 (92) 92 (100) 141 (89) 108 (90) < 0.01
No   30 (8) 0 (0) 18 (11) 12 (10)  
 Legumes and nuts Yes n (%) 155 (42) 84 (91) 65 (41) 6 (5) < 0.01
No   216 (58) 8 (9) 94 (59) 114 (95)  
 Eggs Yes n (%) 101 (27) 18 (20) 28 (18) 55 (46) < 0.01
No   270 (73) 74 (80) 131 (82) 65 (54)  
 Meat, fish or insects Yes n (%) 104 (28) 57 (62) 4 (3) 43 (36) < 0.01
No   267 (72) 35 (38) 155 (97) 77 (64)  
 Milk and dairy Yes n (%) 284 (77) 21 (23) 143 (90) 120 (100) < 0.01
No   87 (23) 71 (77) 16 (10) 0 (0)  
Young Child Feeding Index components
Modified Minimum Dietary Yes n (%) 216 (58) 66 (72) 72 (45) 78 (65) < 0.01
 Diversity No   155 (42) 26 (28) 87 (55) 42 (35)  
Modified Minimum Meal Yes n (%) 297 (80) 55 (60) 147 (92) 95 (79) < 0.01
 Frequency No   74 (20) 37 (40) 12 (8) 25 (21)  
Modified Minimum Acceptable Yes n (%) 174 (47) 43 (47) 66 (42) 65 (54) 0.11
 Diet No   197 (53) 49 (53) 93 (58) 55 (46)  
Child growth at 36 months
 Height Z-score   N 354 86 158 110  
  Mean (SD) −2.36 (1.19) −2.34 (1.60) −2.31 (0.95) −2.44 (1.12) 0.56
  Median −2.28 −2.38 −2.24 −2.37  
  Min, Max −5.69, 0.84 −5.69, 0.84 −5.19, −0.18 −5.31, 0.42  
 Weight Z-score   N 363 91 159 113  
  Mean (SD) −1.54 (1.13) −0.62 (0.99) −1.87 (1.01) −1.81 (1.00) < 0.01
  Median −1.55 −0.81 −1.80 −1.69  
  Min, Max −5.05, 2.33 −3.01, 2.33 −5.05, 0.61 −4.60, 0.61  
 Weight-for-Height Z-score   N 354 86 158 110  
  Mean (SD) −0.29 (1.50) 1.00 (1.53) −0.78 (1.22) − 0.58 (1.26) < 0.01
  Median −0.40 0.97 −0.93 −0.37  
  Min, Max −4.56, 4.05 −3.02, 4.05 − 3.72, 2.70 − 4.56, 2.13  
 Head Circumference Z-sore   N 359 91 156 112  
  Mean (SD) −0.86 (1.39) 0.42 (1.11) −1.64 (0.96) −0.79 (1.31) < 0.01
  Median −1.03 0.35 −1.78 −0.74  
  Min, Max −4.66, 3.18 −2.09, 3.18 − 4.63, 1.00 − 4.66, 1.79  
 Stunting Yes n (%) 218 (59) 48 (52) 96 (60) 74 (62) 0.33
No   153 (41) 44 (48) 63 (40) 46 (38)  
 Wasting Yes n (%) 44 (12) 4 (4) 25 (16) 15 (13) 0.03
No   327 (88) 88 (96) 134 (84) 105 (88)  
  1. *P-values test difference between sites by chi-square, Fisher’s exact and Kruskal Wallis tests