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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted means for 36 month anthropometric measures

From: Associations between feeding practices and growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months among children living in low- and low-middle income countries who participated in the BRAIN-HIT trial

  Height Z-Scorea Weight Z-Scorea Weight-for-Height Z-Scorea
Measures   N b Mean ± SD (unadjusted) Mean (adjusted)c P valuec Mean ± SD (unadjusted) Mean (adjusted)c P valuec Mean ± SD (unadjusted) Mean (adjusted)c P valuec
Exclusively breastfed first 6 months Yes 223 −2.30 ± 1.22 − 2.30 0.19 −1.39 ± 1.22 −1.32 0.72 −0.15 ± 1.61 − 0.04 0.41
No 131 − 2.47 ± 1.12 −2.56   −1.80 ± 0.90 −1.38   − 0.52 ± 1.26 0.15  
Legumes and nuts Yes 148 −2.41 ± 1.35 −2.58 0.07 − 1.23 ± 1.27 − 1.41 0.44 0.20 ± 1.63 0.13 0.41
No 206 −2.32 ± 1.06 −2.28   −1.77 ± 0.96 −1.30   −0.64 ± 1.29 −0.02  
Eggs Yes 93 −2.46 ± 1.07 −2.46 0.78 −1.57 ± 1.03 −1.29 0.49 −0.24 ± 1.32 0.20 0.26
No 261 −2.33 ± 1.23 −2.42   −1.52 ± 1.16 −1.38   −0.31 ± 1.56 0.01  
Meat, fish or insects Yes 95 −2.39 ± 1.51 −2.42 0.92 −1.12 ± 1.19 −1.32 0.77 0.25 ± 1.81 0.04 0.92
No 259 −2.35 ± 1.05 −2.44   −1.70 ± 1.07 −1.36   −0.48 ± 1.32 0.06  
Milk and dairy Yes 270 −2.38 ± 1.11 −2.46 0.61 −1.73 ± 1.10 −1.34 0.81 −0.55 ± 1.37 0.09 0.66
No 84 −2.28 ± 1.40 −2.34   −0.91 ± 0.99 −1.39   0.56 ± 1.59 −0.03  
Modified Minimum Dietary Diversity Yes 203 −2.41 ± 1.25 −2.48 0.36 −1.44 ± 1.20 −1.33 0.66 −0.09 ± 1.53 0.15 0.12
No 151 −2.30 ± 1.10 −2.36   −1.68 ± 1.01 −1.38   −0.55 ± 1.42 −0.09  
Modified Minimum Meal Frequency Yes 284 −2.41 ± 1.15 −2.50 0.12 −1.59 ± 1.15 −1.32 0.35 − 0.31 ± 1.52 0.16 0.02
No 70 −2.16 ± 1.32 −2.23   −1.31 ± 1.03 −1.45   − 0.21 ± 1.43 − 0.28  
Modified Minimum Acceptable Diet Yes 164 −2.47 ± 1.22 −2.52 0.18 −1.51 ± 1.23 −1.33 0.65 − 0.12 ± 1.60 0.20 0.05
No 190 −2.27 ± 1.15 −2.35   −1.56 ± 1.04 −1.38   −0.43 ± 1.40 −0.08  
  1. aZ-scores deemed implausible according to WHO criteria were set to missing. This includes: WAZ < -6SD or > 5SD; HAZ < -6SD or > 6SD; WHZ < -5SD or > 5SD
  2. b N includes those with non-missing height and weight-for-height measurements (N = 354). There were additional weight measurements available (N = 363)
  3. cAdjusted means were estimated using linear models fitting each anthropometric outcome and adjusted for SES, site, intervention group, resuscitation status, sex, exclusively breastfed first 6 months, birth weight, preterm status, maternal age, and maternal education level. Statistical significance for a difference in means for those with and without each food consumption measure was determined by the F test. Tests of whether the association between measure and outcome differed by site were conducted with none found to be significant. Interactions involving milk and dairy could not be tested as all participants from Pakistan received milk and dairy on an average day