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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted means for head circumference Z-scores at 36 months

From: Associations between feeding practices and growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months among children living in low- and low-middle income countries who participated in the BRAIN-HIT trial

  Head Circumference Z-Scorea
Measures   N b Mean ± SD (unadjusted) Mean (adjusted)c P valuec
Exclusively breastfed first 6 months Yes 228 −0.82 ± 1.45 −0.81 0.92
No 131 −0.92 ± 1.27 −0.79  
Legumes and nuts Yes 153 −0.55 ± 1.51 −0.92 0.15
No 206 − 1.08 ± 1.25 −0.69  
Eggs Yes 95 −0.56 ± 1.28
No 264 −0.96 ± 1.41   
Zambia Yes 18 0.32 ± 1.29 0.20 0.94
No 73 0.44 ± 1.07 0.18  
India Yes 28 −1.62 ± 0.92 − 1.68 0.74
No 128 −1.65 ± 0.97 −1.75  
Pakistan Yes 49 −0.28 ± 1.05 −0.31 < 0.01
No 63 −1.19 ± 1.35 − 1.24  
Meat, fish or insects Yes 101 −0.33 ± 1.32
No 258 −1.06 ± 1.36   
Zambia Yes 57 0.27 ± 0.97 0.07 0.13
No 34 0.66 ± 1.29 0.44  
India Yes 4 −0.77 ± 1.24 − 0.91 0.12
No 152 −1.67 ± 0.94 −1.78  
Pakistan Yes 40 −1.14 ± 1.34 −1.30 < 0.01
No 72 −0.60 ± 1.26 − 0.68  
Milk and dairy Yes 273 −1.16 ± 1.28 −0.87 0.22
No 86 0.11 ± 1.29 −0.61  
Modified Minimum Dietary Diversity Yes 209 −0.74 ± 1.42 −0.86 0.27
No 150 −1.01 ± 1.33 −0.72  
Modified Minimum Meal Frequency Yes 287 −0.97 ± 1.32 −0.77 0.32
No 72 −0.41 ± 1.54 −0.92  
Modified Minimum Acceptable Diet Yes 168 −0.79 ± 1.36 −0.78 0.65
No 191 −0.91 ± 1.41 −0.83  
  1. aZ-scores deemed implausible (<-5SD or > 5SD) according to WHO criteria were set to missing
  2. b N includes those with non-missing head circumference measurements
  3. cAdjusted means were estimated using linear models fitting head circumference Z score and adjusted for SES, site, intervention group, resuscitation status, sex, exclusively breastfed first 6 months, birth weight, preterm status, maternal age, and maternal education level. Statistical significance for a difference in means for those with and without each food consumption measure was determined by the F test. Tests of whether the association between each measure and the outcome differed by site were conducted. Interactions with site were significant for egg consumption (p = 0.01) and for meat, fish, or insects (p = 0.05); head circumference Z score means are shown by site for these measures