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Table 5 Unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of stunting and wasting for 36 month children

From: Associations between feeding practices and growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months among children living in low- and low-middle income countries who participated in the BRAIN-HIT trial

   Stuntinga Wastingb
Characteristics/Measures   Unadjusted Adjustedc   Unadjusted Adjustedc
n (%)d Relative Risk (95% CI) P valuee Relative Risk (95% CI) P valuee n (%)d Relative Risk (95% CI) P valuee Relative Risk (95% CI) P valuee
Sex Male 134 (61) 1.07 (0.81,1.40) 0.63 1.14 (0.96,1.36) 0.12 31 (14) 1.60 (0.84,3.05) 0.16 1.61 (0.88,2.93) 0.12
Female 84 (58) REF   REF   13 (9) REF   REF  
SES tercile Low 110 (63) 1.72 (0.95,3.12) 0.07 1.42 (0.87,2.31) 0.16 25 (14) 1.56 (0.47,5.18) 0.47 1.17 (0.35,3.96) 0.80
Medium 96 (59) 1.63 (0.89,2.97) 0.11 1.48 (0.92,2.39) 0.11 16 (10) 1.09 (0.32,3.73) 0.90 0.79 (0.23,2.68) 0.71
High 12 (36) REF   REF   3 (9) REF   REF  
Legumes and nuts Yes 89 (57) 0.96 (0.73,1.26) 0.78 1.10 (0.89,1.35) 0.37 14 (9) 0.65 (0.34,1.23) 0.18 0.95 (0.46,1.99) 0.90
No 129 (60) REF   REF   30 (14) REF   REF  
Eggs Yes 61 (60) 1.04 (0.77,1.40) 0.80 1.01 (0.84,1.22) 0.90 5 (5) 0.34 (0.14,0.87) 0.02 0.37 (0.15,0.89) 0.03
No 157 (58) REF   REF   39 (14) REF   REF  
Meat, fish or insects Yes 55 (53) 0.87 (0.64,1.18) 0.36 0.89 (0.71,1.13) 0.34 10 (10) 0.76 (0.37,1.53) 0.43 1.17 (0.55,2.48) 0.68
No 163 (61) REF   REF   34 (13) REF   REF  
Milk and dairy Yes 171 (60) 1.11 (0.81,1.54) 0.51 0.96 (0.70,1.31) 0.78 39 (14) 2.39 (0.94,6.06) 0.07 1.31 (0.56,3.06) 0.54
No 47 (54) REF   REF   5 (6) REF   REF  
Modified Minimum Dietary Diversity Yes 125 (58) 0.96 (0.74,1.26) 0.79 0.99 (0.84,1.17) 0.91 18 (8) 0.50 (0.27,0.91) 0.02 0.63 (0.35,1.15) 0.13
No 93 (60) REF   REF   26 (17) REF   REF  
Modified Minimum Meal Frequency Yes 179 (60) 1.14 (0.81,1.62) 0.45 1.12 (0.89,1.41) 0.32 36 (12) 1.12 (0.52,2.41) 0.77 0.88 (0.43,1.80) 0.73
No 39 (53) REF   REF   8 (11) REF   REF  
Modified Minimum Acceptable Diet Yes 103 (59) 1.01 (0.78,1.32) 0.92 1.01 (0.86,1.19) 0.89 16 (9) 0.65 (0.35,1.20) 0.16 0.74 (0.42,1.33) 0.32
No 115 (58) REF   REF   28 (14) REF   REF  
  1. aStunting was defined as having −6 ≤ height Z-score < −2
  2. bWasting was defined as having −5 ≤ weight-for-height Z-score < −2
  3. cRelative risks were estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance estimators and adjusted for SES, site, intervention group, resuscitation status, sex, exclusively breastfed first 6 months, birth weight, preterm status, maternal age, and maternal education level
  4. dNumber and percent who were determined to have stunting or wasting, respectively
  5. eStatistical significance was determined using the Wald chi-square test