Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample Characteristics (Socio-demographic, Dietary, Lifestyle, Anthropometric, and Biochemical factors) of Study Participants

From: Vitamin D status and body composition: a cross-sectional study among employees at a private university in Lebanon

Characteristic Total (n = 344) Men (n = 172) Women (n = 172) P-value4
n or mean or median % or SD or IQR n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD
Age (years) 42.6 11.5 45.6 12.1 39.5 10.2 0.000
Marital status
 Single/ Separated/ Divorced 119 34.6 53 30.8 66 38.4 0.174
 Married 225 65.4 119 69.2 106 61.6  
Education level
 High school 75 21.8 48 27.9a 27 15.7b 0.013
 Bachelor degree 87 25.3 36 20.9a 51 29.6a  
Graduate 182 52.9 88 51.2a 94 54.7a
Income ($)
  < 2250 112 32.6 61 35.5a 51 29.6a 0.033
 2250–4000 87 25.3 33 19.2a 54 31.4b  
  > 4000 145 42.2 78 45.3a 67 39.0a
Medical morbidity
 No 202 58.9 91 53.2 111 64.5 0.043
 Yes 141 41.1 80 46.8 61 35.5  
Vitamin D intake (μg) 1.3 [0.6–3.2] 2.5 4.0 2.0 2.0 0.209
Intake of vitamin D supplement, past 3 months
 No 270 78.5 142 82.6 128 74.4 0.088
 Yes 74 21.5 30 17.4 44 25.6  
Alcohol drinking
 No 255 74.1 112 65.1 143 83.1 0.000
 Yes 89 25.9 60 34.9 29 16.9  
Smoking
 No 212 61.6 93 54.1 119 69.2 0.006
 Yes 132 38.4 79 45.9 53 30.8  
Daily exposure to direct sunlight   0.008
  ≤ 15 mins 136 39.5 66 38.4a 70 40.7a  
 16–60 min 112 32.6 46 26.7a 66 38.4b
  > 60 mins 96 27.9 60 34.9a 36 20.9b
Use sunscreen
 No 244 70.9 165 95.9 79 45.9 0.000
 Yes 100 29.1 7 4.1 93 54.1  
Physical activity level
 Low 221 64.2 10.3 59.9 118 68.6 0.115
 Moderate/High 123 35.8 69.0 40.1 54 31.4  
OCP1 use
 No 341 99.1 100 100 169 98.3 0.248
 Yes 3 0.9 0 0 3 1.7  
BMI2
 Underweight 2 0.6 0 0.0a,b 2 1.2a,b 0.000
 Normal 122 35.5 27 15.7a 95 55.2b  
 Overweight 130 37.8 86 50.0a 44 25.6b
 Obese 90 26.2 59 34.3a 31 18.0b  
Percent body fat 30.9 7.9 27.8 6.9 34.0 7.6 0.000
Waist circumference
 Low risk3 170 49.4 85 49.4 85 49.4 1
 High risk 174 50.6 87 50.6 87 50.6  
Vitamin D concentration (ng/mL) 25.7 [18.2–25.7] 28.4 15.0 28.1 12.8 0.846
  1. 1Oral Contraceptive Pills
  2. 2Body Mass Index
  3. 3WC values were classified as high risk/low risk for diseases, using the World Health Organization (WHO) cutoffs for men > 102 cm and women > 88 cm [24]
  4. 4The P value reflects gender differences
  5. Columns with superscripts without a common symbol differ, the P value is < 0.05
  6. Comparisons of continuous and categorical variables were performed using independent sample T Test/Mann-Whitney-U-test and the chi square test /Fisher’s exact test, respectively