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Table 1 Sample characteristics (socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, dietary intake and biochemical factors) in employees of a private Lebanese university

From: The relationship between hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional study among employees of a private university in Lebanon

Characteristic Total (n = 344) Men (n = 172) Women (n = 172)  
n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD Significance
Age (years) 42.6 11.5 45.6 12.1 39.5 10.2 0.000
Marital status
 Single/ Separated/ Divorced 119 34.6 53 30.8 66 38.4 0.174
 Married 225 65.4 119 69.2 106 61.6  
Education level
 High school/BT1 75 21.8 48 27.9 a 27 15.7 a 0.013
 Bachelor degree 87 25.3 36 20.9 b 51 29.6 b  
 Graduate 182 52.9 88 51.2 a,b 94 54.7 a,b  
Income ($)
  < 2250 112 32.6 61 35.5 a 51 29.6 a 0.033
 2250–4000 87 25.3 33 19.2 a 54 31.4 b  
  > 4000 145 42.2 78 45.3 a 67 39.0 a  
Medical morbidity
 No 202 58.9 91 53.2 111 64.5 0.043
 Yes 141 41.1 80 46.8 61 35.5  
Intake of vitamin D supplement, past 3 months
 No 270 78.5 142 82.6 128 74.4 0.088
 Yes 74 21.5 30 17.4 44 25.6  
Intake of other supplement, past 3 months
 No 252 73.3 133 77.3 119 69.2 0.113
 Yes 92 26.7 39 22.7 53 30.8  
Daily exposure to direct sunlight        0.008
  ≤ 15 mins 136 39.5 66 38.4 a 70 40.7 a  
 16–60 min 112 32.6 46 26.7 a 66 38.4 b  
  > 60 mins 96 27.9 60 34.9 a 36 20.9 b  
Use sunscreen
 No 244 70.9 165 95.9 79 45.9 0.000
 Yes 100 29.1 7 4.1 93 54.1  
Smoking
 No 212 61.6 93 54.1 119 69.2 0.006
 Yes 132 38.4 79 45.9 53 30.8  
Alcohol drinking
 No 255 74.1 112 65.1 143 83.1 0.000
 Yes 89 25.9 60 34.9 29 16.9  
Physical activity level
 Low 221 64.2 10.3 59.9 118 68.6 0.115
 Moderate/High 123 35.8 69.0 40.1 54.0 31.4  
Vitamin D intake (μg) 2.24 3.18 2.46 4.0 2.03 2.04 0.209
Vitamin D concentration (ng/mL) 28.2 13.9 28.4 15.0 28.1 12.8 0.846
BMI (kg/m2)
 Underweight 2 0.6 0 0.0 a,b 2 1.2 a,b 0.000
 Normal 122 35.5 27 15.7 a 95 55.2 b  
 Overweight 130 37.8 86 50.0 a 44 25.6 b  
 Obese 90 26.2 59 34.3 a 31 18.0 b  
Percent body fat (%) 30.90 7.899 27.796 6.930 33.973 7.608 0.000
Waist circumference (cm) 96.5 12.2 102.1 10.5 90.9 11.1 0.000
MetS2 status
 No 263 76.5 113 65.7 150 87.2 0.000
 Yes 81 23.5 59 34.3 22 12.8  
Waist circumference risky
 No3 170 49.4 85 49.4 85 49.4 1
 Yes 174 50.6 87 50.6 87 50.6  
Blood pressure
 Healthy 271 78.8 116 67.4 155 90.1 0.000
 Unhealthy4 73 21.2 56 32.6 17 9.9  
Fasting blood glucose
 Normal 274 79.7 119 69.2 155 90.1 0.000
 Impaired5 70 20.3 53 30.8 17 9.9  
TG levels
 Normal TG levels 232 67.4 88 51.1 144 83.7 0.000
 Hypertriglyceridemia6 112 32.6 84 48.8 28 16.3  
HDL
 Normal 262 76.2 129 75 133 77.3 0.704
 Low7 82 23.8 43 25 39 22.7  
  1. 1Baccalaureat Technique
  2. 2Metabolic Syndrome defined according the NCEP-ATP III [63]
  3. 3WC < 88 cm for women and < 102 cm for men [27]
  4. 4blood pressure ≥ 130/ 85 mmHg [63]
  5. 5fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/Dl [63]
  6. 6triglycerides level ≥ 150 mg/dL [63]
  7. 7HDL cholesterol levels< 40 mg/dL in men or < 50 mg/ dL in women [63]
  8. Columns with superscripts without a common symbol differ, P < 0.05