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Table 2 – Interventions targeting sugar consumption

From: The impact of food reformulation on nutrient intakes and health, a systematic review of modelling studies

Author (year) Study Characteristics Study Outcomes
Model type Time Horizon Target foods Type of intervention(s) Voluntary/mandatory Reduction in individual intake Reduction in weight Reduction in the incidence of clinical outcomes
Briggs et al. (2017) [39] Epidemiological 1y High and mid-sugar drinks ↓30% in sugar for high-sugar drinks; 15% for mid-sugar drinks Mandatory 5.38 sugar g/day (27.5%, UI = 4.19–5.76) - i.e. about 21 Kcal/day T2D incidence: 31.1 per 100,000 persons (UI = 11–53)
Obesity prevalence: 0.9% (UI = 0.3–19%)
↓5% in sugar content for both high and mid-sugar drinks Mandatory 0.98 sugar g/day (5%, UI = 0.92–1.05) - i.e. about 3.92 Kcal/day T2D incidence: 5.8 per 100,000 persons (UI = 2–10)
Obesity prevalence: 0.2% (UI = 0.09–4%)
Yeung et al. (2017) [28] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled Selected foods with at least 5 g of added sugars/100 g ↓10% in added sugar Mandatory 10.75 Kcal/day (SE = 36, 0.52%) in 2-16y
4.62 added sugar g/day (SE = 2.9, 7.69%) in 2-16y
↓15% in added sugar Mandatory 16.25 Kcal/day (SE = 55, 0.79%) in 2-16y
6.97 added sugar g/day (SE = 4.47, 11.59%) in 2-16y
↓25% in added sugar Mandatory 27.24 Kcal/day (SE = 92, 1.34%) in 2-16y
11.73 added sugar g/day (SE = 7.5, 19.5%) in 2-16y
Food and Drink Industry Ireland (2016) [26] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled 10 Food macrocategories Reformulation based on actual FDII voluntary programme Mandatory extension of existing programme 1.02 sugar g/day (1.12%) in adults
Voluntary 0.27 sugar g/day (0.30%) in adults
Leroy et al. (2016) [32] Epidemiological 1y F&V, bread, meat, fish, sandwiches, sauces Strong reformulation based on the Choices Programme criteria Mandatory 14.4% daily sugar intake Fatal CVD/Strokes deaths averted: 421
Cancer deaths averted: 324
Mild reformulation based on the Choices Programme criteria Mandatory 4.6% daily sugar intake CVD/Strokes and Cancer deaths averted: 2408 (3.7%) - due to total reductions in Na, SFA and sugar consumption combined
Ma et al. (2016) [40] Mathematical/statistical 5y Sugar sweetened beverages (with juices) ↓40% in added sugar content (9.7% per year over 5 years) Mandatory 38.4 Kcal/day (UI = 36.3–40.7) 1.2 kg (UI = 1.12–1.28) BMI reduction: 0.42 kg/m2 (1.5%)
Overweight prevalence: 1%
Obesity prevalence: 2.1%
T2D incidence: 274000–309,000 cases averted
Sugar sweetened beverages (without juices) 31.0 Kcal/day (UI = 28.6–33.7) 0.96 kg (UI = 0.88–1.04) BMI reduction: 0.34 kg/m2(1.2%)
Overweight prevalence: 0.7%
Obesity prevalence: 1.7%
T2D incidence 221,000–250,000 cases averted
Masset et al. (2016) [25] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled Pizza Reformulation to meet Nestlè Nutrient Profiling targets Mandatory 0.1 sugar g/day (0.1%)
Combris et al. (2011) [8] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled Breakfast cereals Mild to strong reformulation based on food nutrient distribution Mandatory 0.125–0.278 sugar g/day (1.80–4%)
Biscuits/ pastries 0.006–0.068 sugar g/day (0.30–3.5%)
Bread-based products 0.058–0.288 sugar g/day (2.80–13.9%)
Hendriksen et al. (2011) [41] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled Carbonated soft drinks 100% substitution of sugar with intense sweeteners Mandatory 80.5 Kcal/day 3.55 kg Obesity prevalence: 4%
BMI reduction: 1.5 kg/m2
Roodenburg et al. (2009) [27] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled All processed foods Reformulation set to meet Choices Programme criteria Mandatory 37% daily sugar intake (29% adjusting for energy compensation)
Husøy et al. (2008) [24] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled Carbonated soft drinks 100% substitution of sugar with intense sweeteners Mandatory 36.5% energy intake
  1. Abbreviations: BMI – Body Mass Index; CVD – Cardiovascular diseases; FDII – Food and Drink Industry Ireland; F&V – fruit and vegetables; SE – Standard Error; T2D – Type 2 diabetes; UI – Uncertainty Interval