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Table 3 General characteristics of UK dietary assessment tools and their validation studies in children and adolescents

From: Measuring energy, macro and micronutrient intake in UK children and adolescents: a comparison of validated dietary assessment tools

Test Dietary Assessment Tool Validation Studies
First author and year Administration method Nutrient database First author and year Macronutrients validated Micronutrients validated Food groups included (Y/N) Life stage, age range Cohort (M/F) Time span Statistical Method Used
Test DAT Reference method
Weighed food diary
Davies [19] (1994) By adult proxy MCW4 Davies [19] (1994) E 0 N Children & Infants (1.5–4.5 yr)
81 (42/39)
4d consecutive 10d (DLW) Mean Difference (relative bias); CC (NR); LOA
Livingstone [20]
(1992)
Self (12–18 yr)); By adult proxy (7 + yr) MCW4 inc. supplementary food composition data Livingstone [20] (1992) E 0 N Children & Adolescents (7–18 yr)
58 (29/29)
7d consecutive 10 – 14d (DLW) Mean Difference LOA
Estimated food diary
Lanigan [21] (2001) By adult proxy COMP-EAT v.5 Lanigan [21] (2001) E, PRO, FAT, CHO 0 N Infants (6–24 months)
DLW – 21
Weighed Food Diary – 72
5d 7d (DLW) & 5d (Food Diary) Mean Difference LOA
Semi-weighed food diary
Holmes [22] (2008) Self (12+ yr) By adult proxy (< 5 yr), adult proxy / child combined (6-11 yr) Interview MCW5 Holmes [22] (2008) E, PRO, FAT, CHO, DF RET, Vit B1, B9, C, Ca, Fe N Children (2–10) & adolescents (11-17 yr)
124 (70/52)
4d 4d (weighed food diary) Mean Difference; LOAc
Dietary recall
Carter [23]
(myfood24)
(2015)
Self; Interview MCW7 Albar [24] (2016) aAll assessed Sodium Y Adolescents
75 (37/38)
2d (non-consecutive) 2d (non-consecutive 24-h recall) Mean Difference; CC (ICC); Cross Classification LOA; Weighted Cohen’s kappa
bFoster [25] (INTAKE24)
(2013)
Self MCW Bradley [ [11] (2016) E, PRO, FAT,CHO, NSP, SUG, Vit C, calcium, iron Y Adolescents 4d (Results reported data on participants completing any number of days) 4d recall (Results reported data on participants completing any number of days) Mean ratios; LOA (ratio)b
Holmes [22] (2008) Self (12+ yr) By adult proxy (< 5 yr), adult proxy / child combined (6-11 yr) Interview MCW5 Holmes [22] (2008) E, PRO, FAT, CHO, DF RET, Vit B1, B9, C, Ca, Fe N Children (2–10_& adolescents (11-17 yr)
124 (70/52
4d 4d (weighed food diary) Mean Difference; LOAc
Johnson [26] (1996) Interview Food Intake Analysis Reilly [27] (2001) E 0 N Children (3–4 yr)
41 (23/18)
3d (MPR) 7d (DLW) Mean Difference; LOA
Montgomery [28] (2005) E 0 N Children (4.5–7 yr)
63 (32/31)
3d (Inc. 1 weekend d) 2d (DLW) Mean Difference (bias); LOA
Johnson [26] (1996) E 0 N Children (4–7 yr)
(12/12)
3d (MPR) 14d (DLW) Mean Difference; LOA
Food frequency questionnaire
McKeown [29] (EPIC FFQ)
(2001)
Self MCW Lietz [30]
(2002)
E, PRO, FAT, CHO, Ca, K, Na N Adolescents (11.8–13.2 yr)
50 (32/18)
1d 7d (Food diary) Mean Difference; CC (S); Cross Classification; LOA
bRobinson [31]
(2007)
By adult proxy MCW5 Marriot [32]
(2008)
E, PRO, FAT, CHO, SUG aAll assessed N Infants (6 months)
50 (25/25)
1d 4d (weighed food diaries) Mean Difference (%); CC(S); LOAb
bRobinson [31]
(2007)
By adult proxy MCW5 Marriot [33]
(2009)
E, PRO, FAT, CHO, SUG aAll assessed N Infants (12 months)
50 (27/23)
1d 4d (weighed food diaries) Mean Difference (%); CC (S); LOAb
Food checklist
Cade [34]
(CADET)
(2006)
Combination of Self and adult proxy (parent, school dinner supervisor) DANTE Cade [34]
(2006)
aAll assessed Ca, Fe, B9, K, Vit C Y Children (3–7 yr)
180 (100/80)
1d 1d (weighed food diary) Mean Difference; CC (S); LOA
Christian [35]
(2015)
E, PRO, CHO, FAT,SUG, DF Na, Ca, Vit C Y Children (8–11 yr)
67 (33/34)
1d 1d (weighed food diary) Mean Difference; CC (P) LOA
Holmes [22]
(2008)
Self (12+ yr) By adult proxy (< 5 yr), adult proxy / child combined (6-11 yr) Interview MCW5 Holmes [22]
(2008)
E, PRO, FAT, CHO, DF RET, Vit B1, B9, C, Ca, Fe N Children (2–10) & adolescents (11-17 yr)
124 (70/52)
4d 4d (weighed food diary) Mean Difference; LOAb
Diet history
Livingstone [20] (1992) Self (12–18 yr)); By adult proxy (7 + yr) MCW4 Livingstone [20]
(1992)
E 0 N Children & Adolescents (3–18 yr)
78 (41/37)
1d 10-14d (DLW) Mean Difference; LOA
  1. aAll assessed = Macronutrients: E (Energy), PRO (Protein), UR (Urinary Nutrogen), CHO, (Carbohydrate) FAT, DF (Dietary Fibre / NSP),; MUFA (Monounsaturated Fatty Acids), PUFA (Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids), SFA (Saturated Fatty Acids), SUG (Sugar). Ca Calcium, Na Sodium, Fe Iron, K Potassium, RET Retinol
  2. bResults expressed as a ratio or percentage so not shown on the summary plots
  3. cLOA calculated from information reported
  4. MCW = McCance & Widdowson; DLW (Doubly Labelled Water); CC (Correlation coefficient), S (Spearman), P (Pearson); ICC(Intra-class correlation coefficient); LOA (Limits of Agreement)