Skip to main content

Table 3 General characteristics of UK dietary assessment tools and their validation studies in children and adolescents

From: Measuring energy, macro and micronutrient intake in UK children and adolescents: a comparison of validated dietary assessment tools

Test Dietary Assessment ToolValidation Studies
First author and yearAdministration methodNutrient databaseFirst author and yearMacronutrients validatedMicronutrients validatedFood groups included (Y/N)Life stage, age range Cohort (M/F)Time spanStatistical Method Used
Test DATReference method
Weighed food diary
Davies [19] (1994)By adult proxyMCW4Davies [19] (1994)E0NChildren & Infants (1.5–4.5 yr)
81 (42/39)
4d consecutive10d (DLW)Mean Difference (relative bias); CC (NR); LOA
Livingstone [20]
(1992)
Self (12–18 yr)); By adult proxy (7 + yr)MCW4 inc. supplementary food composition dataLivingstone [20] (1992)E0NChildren & Adolescents (7–18 yr)
58 (29/29)
7d consecutive10 – 14d (DLW)Mean Difference LOA
Estimated food diary
Lanigan [21] (2001)By adult proxyCOMP-EAT v.5Lanigan [21] (2001)E, PRO, FAT, CHO0NInfants (6–24 months)
DLW – 21
Weighed Food Diary – 72
5d7d (DLW) & 5d (Food Diary)Mean Difference LOA
Semi-weighed food diary
Holmes [22] (2008)Self (12+ yr) By adult proxy (< 5 yr), adult proxy / child combined (6-11 yr) InterviewMCW5Holmes [22] (2008)E, PRO, FAT, CHO, DFRET, Vit B1, B9, C, Ca, FeNChildren (2–10) & adolescents (11-17 yr)
124 (70/52)
4d4d (weighed food diary)Mean Difference; LOAc
Dietary recall
Carter [23]
(myfood24)
(2015)
Self; InterviewMCW7Albar [24] (2016)aAll assessedSodiumYAdolescents
75 (37/38)
2d (non-consecutive)2d (non-consecutive 24-h recall)Mean Difference; CC (ICC); Cross Classification LOA; Weighted Cohen’s kappa
bFoster [25] (INTAKE24)
(2013)
SelfMCWBradley [ [11] (2016)E, PRO, FAT,CHO, NSP, SUG,Vit C, calcium, ironYAdolescents4d (Results reported data on participants completing any number of days)4d recall (Results reported data on participants completing any number of days)Mean ratios; LOA (ratio)b
Holmes [22] (2008)Self (12+ yr) By adult proxy (< 5 yr), adult proxy / child combined (6-11 yr) InterviewMCW5Holmes [22] (2008)E, PRO, FAT, CHO, DFRET, Vit B1, B9, C, Ca, FeNChildren (2–10_& adolescents (11-17 yr)
124 (70/52
4d4d (weighed food diary)Mean Difference; LOAc
Johnson [26] (1996)InterviewFood Intake AnalysisReilly [27] (2001)E0NChildren (3–4 yr)
41 (23/18)
3d (MPR)7d (DLW)Mean Difference; LOA
Montgomery [28] (2005)E0NChildren (4.5–7 yr)
63 (32/31)
3d (Inc. 1 weekend d)2d (DLW)Mean Difference (bias); LOA
Johnson [26] (1996)E0NChildren (4–7 yr)
(12/12)
3d (MPR)14d (DLW)Mean Difference; LOA
Food frequency questionnaire
McKeown [29] (EPIC FFQ)
(2001)
SelfMCWLietz [30]
(2002)
E, PRO, FAT, CHO,Ca, K, NaNAdolescents (11.8–13.2 yr)
50 (32/18)
1d7d (Food diary)Mean Difference; CC (S); Cross Classification; LOA
bRobinson [31]
(2007)
By adult proxyMCW5Marriot [32]
(2008)
E, PRO, FAT, CHO, SUGaAll assessedNInfants (6 months)
50 (25/25)
1d4d (weighed food diaries)Mean Difference (%); CC(S); LOAb
bRobinson [31]
(2007)
By adult proxyMCW5Marriot [33]
(2009)
E, PRO, FAT, CHO, SUGaAll assessedNInfants (12 months)
50 (27/23)
1d4d (weighed food diaries)Mean Difference (%); CC (S); LOAb
Food checklist
Cade [34]
(CADET)
(2006)
Combination of Self and adult proxy (parent, school dinner supervisor)DANTECade [34]
(2006)
aAll assessedCa, Fe, B9, K, Vit CYChildren (3–7 yr)
180 (100/80)
1d1d (weighed food diary)Mean Difference; CC (S); LOA
Christian [35]
(2015)
E, PRO, CHO, FAT,SUG, DFNa, Ca, Vit CYChildren (8–11 yr)
67 (33/34)
1d1d (weighed food diary)Mean Difference; CC (P) LOA
Holmes [22]
(2008)
Self (12+ yr) By adult proxy (< 5 yr), adult proxy / child combined (6-11 yr) InterviewMCW5Holmes [22]
(2008)
E, PRO, FAT, CHO, DFRET, Vit B1, B9, C, Ca, FeNChildren (2–10) & adolescents (11-17 yr)
124 (70/52)
4d4d (weighed food diary)Mean Difference; LOAb
Diet history
Livingstone [20] (1992)Self (12–18 yr)); By adult proxy (7 + yr)MCW4Livingstone [20]
(1992)
E0NChildren & Adolescents (3–18 yr)
78 (41/37)
1d10-14d (DLW)Mean Difference; LOA
  1. aAll assessed = Macronutrients: E (Energy), PRO (Protein), UR (Urinary Nutrogen), CHO, (Carbohydrate) FAT, DF (Dietary Fibre / NSP),; MUFA (Monounsaturated Fatty Acids), PUFA (Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids), SFA (Saturated Fatty Acids), SUG (Sugar). Ca Calcium, Na Sodium, Fe Iron, K Potassium, RET Retinol
  2. bResults expressed as a ratio or percentage so not shown on the summary plots
  3. cLOA calculated from information reported
  4. MCW = McCance & Widdowson; DLW (Doubly Labelled Water); CC (Correlation coefficient), S (Spearman), P (Pearson); ICC(Intra-class correlation coefficient); LOA (Limits of Agreement)