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Table 3 Absolute and relative daily energy and macronutrient intake of the study population calculated from a 3-day dietary record

From: Characterization, dietary habits and nutritional intake of omnivorous, lacto-ovo vegetarian and vegan runners – a pilot study

Nutrient intake OMN
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-LOV
LOV
(n = 25)
p value
LOV-VEG
VEG
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-VEG
p value
3 groups
Reference values (m/f)*
Energy
 Energy intake (MJ) 10.4 (8.70, 12.1) 9.67 (8.55, 10.8) 10.2 (9.12, 11.3) 0.989b 11.9–12.3/9.41–9.83
Macronutrients
 Carbohydrate (EN%) 46.7 (43.6, 49.8) 0.824c 49.4 (45.5, 53.3) 0.067c 55.2 (51.4, 59.0) 0.002c 0.003a >  50
 Carbohydrate (g/kg BW) 4.31 (3.45, 5.17) 1.000c 4.22 (3.52, 4.91) 0.094c 5.01 (4.40, 5.62) 0.111c 0.049b  
 Protein (EN%) 16.7 (15.1, 18.9) 0.540c 15.9 (13.6, 18.2) 0.295c 13.8 (12.5, 15.0) 0.007c 0.009b  
 Protein (g/kg BW) 1.50 (1.27, 1.66) 0.159c 1.34 (1.09, 1.56) 1.000c 1.25 (1.07, 1.42) 0.063c 0.047b 0.8
 Fat (EN%) 32.5 (30.5, 34.5) 0.432c 30.8 (26.8, 34.8) 0.708c 26.3 (22.7, 29.8) 0.021c 0.026b 30
 Fiber (g) 27.0 (22.8, 31.1) 0.176c 33.4 (28.6, 38.2) 0.006c 51.7 (44.1, 59.4) 0.000c 0.000b ≥ 30
  1. OMN omnivores, LOV lacto-ovo vegetarians, VEG vegans, MJ mega joule, EN% energy percent, BW body weight, *Reference values of the German, Austrian and Swiss Nutrition Societies (Deutsche, Österreichische und Schweizerische Gesellschaften für Ernährung, D-A-CH) [33]. Data are presented as mean (95% CI). aOne-way ANOVA, bKruskal Wallis test, cPost hoc test, p-values ​​in bold represent statistical significance