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Table 5 Dietary vitamin intake of the study population calculated from a 3-day dietary record (nutrient intake via food and supplements)

From: Characterization, dietary habits and nutritional intake of omnivorous, lacto-ovo vegetarian and vegan runners – a pilot study

   OMN
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-LOV
LOV
(n = 25)
p value
LOV-VEG
VEG
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-VEG
p value
3 groups
Reference values (m/f)*
A [retinol equ.] (mg) Food 1.45 (0.81, 2.10) 1.26 (0.91, 1.61) 1.72 (1.27, 2.16) 0.221a 1.0/0.8
Supplement 0 0 0  
D (μg) Food 2.61 (1.34, 3.89) 1.000b 1.67 (1.02, 2.32) 0.037b 1.04 (0.46, 1.62) 0.003b 0.002a 20
Supplement 5.68 (−0.12, 11.5) 2.75 (−2.91, 8.40) 18.8 (1.61, 36.1) 0.086a  
E (mg) Food 9.66 (7.85, 11.5) 0.851b 11.4 (9.03, 13.7) 0.280b 16.4 (12.5, 20.4) 0.015b 0.018a 14/12c
Supplement 1.12 (−0.47, 2.71) 0.15 (− 0.16, 0.47) 0.04 (− 0.37, 0.11) 0.411a  
K (μg) Food 92.5 (63.5, 122) 0.119b 181 (96.6, 266) 0.058b 261 (164, 359) 0.000b 0.000a 70/60
Supplement 0 0 0  
B1 [thiamine] (mg) Food 1.38 (1.21, 1.55) 0.502b 1.20 (0.98, 1.43) 0.003b 1.86 (1.56, 2.16) 0.143b 0.004a 1.2/1.0
Supplement 0.56 (− 0.58, 1.70) 0.17 (−0.16, 0.50) 0.09 (− 0.08, 0.26) 0.888a  
B2 [riboflavin] (mg) Food 1.57 (1.34, 1.79) 1.54 (1.12, 1.96) 1.38 (1.16, 1.59) 0.278a 1.4/1.1
Supplement 0.56 (−0.58, 1.70) 0.01 (− 0.01, 0.03) 0.11 (− 0.98, 0.33) 0.896a  
Niacin (mg) Food 21.4 (18.5, 24.3) 0.033b 15.8 (12.3, 19.3) 1.000b 17.3 (12.3, 22.3) 0.021b 0.010a 15/12
Supplement 0.62 (−0.52, 1.77) 0.09 (−0.09, 0.27) 1.31 (− 1.12, 3.74) 0.645a  
Pantothenic acid (mg) Food 5.23 (4.38, 6.07) 5.36 (4.04, 6.68) 6.39 (4.96, 7.81) 0.461a 6c
Supplement 0.95 (− 0.95, 2.85) 0 0.04 (− 0.19, 0.11) 0.374a  
B6 [pyridoxine] (mg) Food 1.91 (1.61, 2.20) 0.670b 1.59 (1.27, 1.91) 0.002b 2.63 (2.10, 3.16) 0.087b 0.003a 1.6/1.4
Supplement 0.47 (− 0.31, 1.25) 0.46 (− 0.11, 1.04) 0.16 (− 0.07, 0.40) 0.497a  
Biotin (μg) Food 50.9 (44.9, 56.9) 56.7 (43.4, 69.9) 64.5 (51.4, 77.6) 0.573a 30–60c
Supplement 6.10 (−5.33, 17.5) 0 0.70 (−0.44, 1.90) 0.373a  
Folate (μg) Food 307 (249, 364) 1.000b 327 (265, 389) 0.024b 478 (402, 572) 0.001b 0.001a 300
Supplement 11.3 (−5.01, 27.6) 2.20 (−2.33, 6.72) 41.9 (−20.2, 104) 0.261a  
B12 [cobalamin] (μg) Food 4.02 (3.12, 4.92) 0.057c 2.49 (1.49, 3.48) 0.002b 0.79 (0.47, 1.12) 0.000b 0.000a 4
Supplement 0.96 (−0.21, 2.13) 0.002b 0.84 (−0.20, 1.89) 1.000b 206 (101, 312) 0.004b 0.001a  
C [ascorbic acid] (mg) Food 153 (110, 196) 1.000b 143 (107, 179) 0.003b 293 (222, 365) 0.001b 0.000a 110/95
Supplement 3.16 (−1.07, 7.38) 0.17 (−0.18, 0.51) 7.80 (−1.26, 13.7) 0.126a  
  1. OMN omnivores, LOV lacto-ovo vegetarians, VEG vegans, retinol equ. retinol equivalent, *Reference values of the German, Austrian and Swiss Nutrition Societies (Deutsche, Österreichische und Schweizerische Gesellschaften für Ernährung, D-A-CH) [33]
  2. Data are presented as mean (95% CI). aKruskal Wallis test, bPost hoc test, cEstimated values, p-values ​​in bold represent statistical significance