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Table 5 Dietary vitamin intake of the study population calculated from a 3-day dietary record (nutrient intake via food and supplements)

From: Characterization, dietary habits and nutritional intake of omnivorous, lacto-ovo vegetarian and vegan runners – a pilot study

  OMN
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-LOV
LOV
(n = 25)
p value
LOV-VEG
VEG
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-VEG
p value
3 groups
Reference values (m/f)*
A [retinol equ.] (mg)Food1.45 (0.81, 2.10)1.26 (0.91, 1.61)1.72 (1.27, 2.16)0.221a1.0/0.8
Supplement000 
D (μg)Food2.61 (1.34, 3.89)1.000b1.67 (1.02, 2.32)0.037b1.04 (0.46, 1.62)0.003b0.002a20
Supplement5.68 (−0.12, 11.5)2.75 (−2.91, 8.40)18.8 (1.61, 36.1)0.086a 
E (mg)Food9.66 (7.85, 11.5)0.851b11.4 (9.03, 13.7)0.280b16.4 (12.5, 20.4)0.015b0.018a14/12c
Supplement1.12 (−0.47, 2.71)0.15 (− 0.16, 0.47)0.04 (− 0.37, 0.11)0.411a 
K (μg)Food92.5 (63.5, 122)0.119b181 (96.6, 266)0.058b261 (164, 359)0.000b0.000a70/60
Supplement000 
B1 [thiamine] (mg)Food1.38 (1.21, 1.55)0.502b1.20 (0.98, 1.43)0.003b1.86 (1.56, 2.16)0.143b0.004a1.2/1.0
Supplement0.56 (− 0.58, 1.70)0.17 (−0.16, 0.50)0.09 (− 0.08, 0.26)0.888a 
B2 [riboflavin] (mg)Food1.57 (1.34, 1.79)1.54 (1.12, 1.96)1.38 (1.16, 1.59)0.278a1.4/1.1
Supplement0.56 (−0.58, 1.70)0.01 (− 0.01, 0.03)0.11 (− 0.98, 0.33)0.896a 
Niacin (mg)Food21.4 (18.5, 24.3)0.033b15.8 (12.3, 19.3)1.000b17.3 (12.3, 22.3)0.021b0.010a15/12
Supplement0.62 (−0.52, 1.77)0.09 (−0.09, 0.27)1.31 (− 1.12, 3.74)0.645a 
Pantothenic acid (mg)Food5.23 (4.38, 6.07)5.36 (4.04, 6.68)6.39 (4.96, 7.81)0.461a6c
Supplement0.95 (− 0.95, 2.85)00.04 (− 0.19, 0.11)0.374a 
B6 [pyridoxine] (mg)Food1.91 (1.61, 2.20)0.670b1.59 (1.27, 1.91)0.002b2.63 (2.10, 3.16)0.087b0.003a1.6/1.4
Supplement0.47 (− 0.31, 1.25)0.46 (− 0.11, 1.04)0.16 (− 0.07, 0.40)0.497a 
Biotin (μg)Food50.9 (44.9, 56.9)56.7 (43.4, 69.9)64.5 (51.4, 77.6)0.573a30–60c
Supplement6.10 (−5.33, 17.5)00.70 (−0.44, 1.90)0.373a 
Folate (μg)Food307 (249, 364)1.000b327 (265, 389)0.024b478 (402, 572)0.001b0.001a300
Supplement11.3 (−5.01, 27.6)2.20 (−2.33, 6.72)41.9 (−20.2, 104)0.261a 
B12 [cobalamin] (μg)Food4.02 (3.12, 4.92)0.057c2.49 (1.49, 3.48)0.002b0.79 (0.47, 1.12)0.000b0.000a4
Supplement0.96 (−0.21, 2.13)0.002b0.84 (−0.20, 1.89)1.000b206 (101, 312)0.004b0.001a 
C [ascorbic acid] (mg)Food153 (110, 196)1.000b143 (107, 179)0.003b293 (222, 365)0.001b0.000a110/95
Supplement3.16 (−1.07, 7.38)0.17 (−0.18, 0.51)7.80 (−1.26, 13.7)0.126a 
  1. OMN omnivores, LOV lacto-ovo vegetarians, VEG vegans, retinol equ. retinol equivalent, *Reference values of the German, Austrian and Swiss Nutrition Societies (Deutsche, Österreichische und Schweizerische Gesellschaften für Ernährung, D-A-CH) [33]
  2. Data are presented as mean (95% CI). aKruskal Wallis test, bPost hoc test, cEstimated values, p-values ​​in bold represent statistical significance