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Table 2 Associations between nutrient intake and LDL-C concentration according to three dietary assessment methods

From: Relationship between ethanol consumption and TBL2 rs17145738 on LDL-C concentration in Japanese adults: a four season 3-day weighed diet record study

 Complete case datasetaObserved subject datasetbMultiple imputation dataset (m = 100)c
 βSEPβSEPβSEP
Cross-sectional study
 FFQ (one year)d
  Number of observations (person · season) 51  73  78 
  Fat (g/MJ)7.9 × E-31.1 × E-20.489.9 × E-39.9 × E-30.321.1 × E-29.7 × E-30.27
  Cholesterol (mg/MJ)2.3 × E-21.6 × E-10.891.3 × E-21.3 × E-10.922.9 × E-21.3 × E-10.82
  TDF (g/MJ)-3.2 × E-21.9 × E-10.871.3 × E-21.5 × E-10.933.1 × E-21.5 × E-10.84
  Ethanol (g/day)-7.3 × E-22.6 × E-20.008-3.8 × E-22.1 × E-20.07-3.6 × E-22.1 × E-20.09
 First season, 3-day WDRd
  Number of observations (person · season) 51  72  78 
  Fat (g/MJ)3.4 × E-41.2 × E-20.98-6.3 × E-38.9 × E-30.48-6.9 × E-38.6 × E-30.42
  Cholesterol (mg/MJ)6.0 × E-21.3 × E-10.64-1.2 × E-29.1 × E-20.89-9.0 × E-38.7 × E-20.92
  TDF (g/MJ)-2.9 × E-11.2 × E-10.02-1.2 × E-19.0 × E-20.20-1.0 × E-18.9 × E-20.26
  Ethanol (g/day)-7.9 × E-23.1 × E-20.02-6.3 × E-22.4 × E-20.01-5.8 × E-22.4 × E-20.02
Seasonal variation research
 Four season, 3-day WDRe
  Number of observations (person · season) 204  262  312 
  Fat (g/MJ)-5.3 × E-43.8 × E-30.89-1.0 × E-33.2 × E-30.76-1.0 × E-34.2 × E-30.81
Season - WinterReferenceReferenceReference
   - Spring-1.4 × E-29.2 × E-30.13-1.6 × E-27.9 × E-30.04-1.6 × E-21.1 × E-20.14
   - Summer-2.8 × E-29.1 × E-30.003-2.5 × E-27.8 × E-30.002-2.2 × E-21.0 × E-20.04
   - Autumn-1.4 × E-29.1 × E-30.13-1.5 × E-28.2 × E-30.08-1.1 × E-21.1 × E-20.34
  Cholesterol (mg/MJ)7.2 × E-23.1 × E-20.025.3 × E-22.6 × E-20.045.0 × E-23.8 × E-20.19
Season - WinterReferenceReferenceReference
   - Spring-1.7 × E-29.0 × E-30.06-1.8 × E-27.7 × E-30.02-1.8 × E-21.0 × E-20.09
   - Summer-3.0 × E-29.0 × E-30.001-2.7 × E-27.8 × E-3<0.001-2.4 × E-21.0 × E-20.02
   - Autumn-1.8 × E-29.0 × E-30.05-1.7 × E-28.2 × E-30.04-1.3 × E-21.1 × E-20.24
  TDF (g/MJ)-7.1 × E-33.3 × E-20.83-2.2 × E-22.9 × E-20.46-2.7 × E-24.3 × E-20.52
Season - WinterReferenceReferenceReference
   - Spring-1.4 × E-29.1 × E-30.12-1.7 × E-27.8 × E-30.03-1.6 × E-21.1 × E-20.12
   - Summer-2.8 × E-29.2 × E-30.003-2.5 × E-27.9 × E-30.002-2.3 × E-21.1 × E-20.03
   - Autumn-1.4 × E-29.0 × E-30.12-1.5 × E-28.2 × E-30.07-1.1 × E-21.1 × E-20.34
  Ethanol (g/day)-2.1 × E-21.3 × E-20.12-1.9 × E-21.0 × E-20.07-2.7 × E-21.5 × E-20.08
Season - winterReferenceReferenceReference
   - Spring-1.5 × E-28.9 × E-30.11-1.7 × E-27.8 × E-30.03-1.6 × E-21.1 × E-20.13
   - Summer-2.8 × E-28.9 × E-30.002-2.4 × E-27.7 × E-30.002-2.2 × E-21.1 × E-20.04
   - Autumn-1.4 × E-29.0 × E-30.12-1.5 × E-28.2 × E-30.07-1.1 × E-21.1 × E-20.34
  1. Abbreviations: LDL-C LDL cholesterol, FFQ food frequency questionnaire, 3-day WDR 3-day weighed dietary records, TDF total dietary fiber, m number of imputations. The following variables were log-transformed to improve the normality: LDL-C concentration; dietary cholesterol; TDF; BMI; physical activity; ethanol consumption. P <0.05 was shown as bold. aComplete case dataset was composed of subjects without missing values on four seasons. bObserved subjects dataset was used for the analysis of all of values collected in each season even if there were missing values. cMultiple imputation datasets were calculated by means of applying observed subjects dataset to the MI procedure. dMultiple regression models were applied for analyzing the associations between nutrient intake and LDL-C concentration with adjustment for age, sex (0, men; 1, women), BMI, physical activity, ethanol consumption, smoking status (0, non-smoker; 1, smoker) and energy intake. eMixed-effect models were applied for analyzing the associations between nutrient intake and LDL-C concentration with fixed effect: season (1, winter; 2, spring; 3 summer; 4, autumn), age, sex (0, men; 1, women), BMI, physical activity, ethanol consumption, smoking status (0, non-smoker; 1, smoker) and energy intake and random intercept: subject ID