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Table 4 Factors associated with food insecurity among adolescents

From: Adolescent food insecurity in rural Sindh, Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey

VariablesTotal adolescents
N = 788
n (%)
Mean ± SD
Food insecure adolescents
N = 415
n (%)
Mean ± SD
Crude Prevalence Ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted Prevalence Ratio
(95% CI)
Food secure household
 Food insecure479 (60.7)142 (34.3)11
 household309 (39.2)273 (65.7)2.9 (2.4, 3.6)2.3 (1.9, 2.9)
 Male397 (50.3)311 (74.9)11
 Female391 (49.6)104 (25.1)0.3 (0.2, 0.4)0.4 (0.3, 0.5)
 Age of adolescent13.54 ± 2·7113.15 ± 2.600.94 (0.91, 0.98)0.9 (0.9, 1.0)
Father’s years of schooling
 No schooling361 (45.8)197 (47.4)11
  < 10 years181 (23.0)105 (25.3)1.0 (0.8, 1.3)1.1 (0.8, 1.4)
  ≥ 10 years246 (31.2)113 (27.2)0.8 (0.6, 1.0)1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
Mother’s years of schooling
 Illiterate667 (84.6)373 (89.8)11
 Literate121 (15.4)42 (10.1)0.6 (0.4, 0.8)0.8 (0.6, 1.2)
 Total number of siblings5.35 ± 2.290 ± 5.511.0 (0.9, 1.0)1.0 (0.9, 1.0)
Socio-economic status:
 Low296 (37.6)188 (45.3)1.8 (1.4, 2.3)1.1 (0.8, 1.5)
 Middle251 (31.8)143 (34.4)1.6 (1.2, 2.1)1.1 (0.8, 1.5)
 High241 (30.5)84 (20.2)11
  1. Model adjusted for the age of the adolescent, sex, number of siblings, mother and father’s education and SES