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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of children aged 3–6 years according to preschool consumption of fruit juice

From: A longitudinal study of fruit juice consumption during preschool years and subsequent diet quality and BMI

  Categories of 100% fruit juice intake per day  
< 0.5 cup 0.5- < 1 cup ≥1 cup
Characteristics n = 35 n = 35 n = 30  
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD p-trend
Age (years) 5.2 0.49 5.3 0.59 4.7 0.84 0.0038
BMI (kg/m2) 16.3 1.4 16.0 0.92 16.5 1.1 0.1350
Activity (Caltrac counts/hour) 11.3 1.8 10.7 2.0 10.6 1.9 0.3077
Energy (kilocalories) 1519 210 1639 313 1623 240 0.1196
% energy from protein 13.6 1.8 13.7 1.8 13.2 2.0 0.5113
% energy from fat 35.9 3.2 34.4 3.9 31.5 3.8 <.0001
% energy from carbohydrate 52.0 4.1 53.6 4.8 57.0 5.3 0.0002
Calcium (mg/day) 740 212 825 210 748 236 0.2123
Magnesium (mg/day) 180 40 204 43 206 42 0.0232
Potassium (mg/day) 1676 369 1983 412 2150 399 <.0001
Vitamin C (mg/day) 67.7 26.5 89.1 32.0 125.9 49.0 <.0001
Folic acid (mcg/day) 177.8 47.0 194.8 49.6 237.6 64.4 <.0001
Milk (cup-equivalents/day) 1.50 0.61 1.53 0.62 1.42 0.67 0.7629
Added sugar (tsp-equivalents/day) 15.8 4.2 16.3 6.1 14.5 4.4 0.3620
Sugar sweetened beverages, cups/day 0.76 0.48 0.76 0.61 0.60 0.47 0.3695
Whole fruit (cup-equivalents/day) 0.52 0.40 0.65 0.44 0.62 0.34 0.3688
Total Fruit juice (cup-equivalents/day) 0.40 0.20 0.84 0.17 1.63 0.62 <.0001
100% fruit juice (cup-equivalent/day) 0.30 0.16 0.73 0.14 1.51 0.59 <.0001
Healthy Eating Index 2015 Score 48.0 2.0 52.4 6.1 55.0 6.7 0.0002
Number (column percent)
 Gender (% male) 24 (69%) 23 (66%) 14 (47%) 0.0781
 Mother’s education (% college) 7 (20%) 14 (40%) 15 (50%) 0.0116