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Table 1 Main peer- reviewed papers used as source for FODMAP values

From: Presence of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides, and Polyols (FODMAPs) in commonly eaten foods: extension of a database to indicate dietary FODMAP content and calculation of intake in the general population from food diary data

References Analyzed food item/ product/ raw material Analyzed value added in database Food sampling/biological variation Analytical method
[16] National Swedish Food Agency 2007–2013 One hundred and nineteen vegetables, cereal products and other food items Fructose and lactose Purchased in grocery chains, small food stores, and vegetable retailers and from casual trading area.
• If possible a minimum of ten samples of each food item
• Gas- chromatographic method [17].
• Result presented in fresh weight g/100 g food item
[9] Muir et al.2007 Sixty vegetables and 43 fruits Free fructose and fructan Approximately 500 g (edible weight) of each food item from respectively five grocery stores and five green grocers, Australia, Melbourne • Analyses made of pooled samples
• Enzymatic analysis and spectrophotometry [18]
• Triplicate analysis
• Result presented in g/ 100 g “as eaten” in fresh weight
[10] Muir et al.2009 Forty-five vegetables and 41 fruits Fructose, fructan Approximately 500 g (edible weight) of each food item from each of five grocery stores and five green grocers, Australia, Melbourne • Analyses made of pooled samples
•HPLC with ELSD
•Triplicate analysis
•Result presented in g/ 100 g “as eaten” in fresh weight
[8] Biesiekierski et al. 2011 Fifty- five grains and cereals Fructose, FOS (nystose, kestose). Total fructan,
lactose, GOS (raffinose, stachyose) sugar polyols (sorbitol, mannitol)
Approximately 500 g (edible weight) of each food item from Supermarkets, market- places and health stores in Melbourne, Australia, One to 9 products/
brands of each food item, 500 g of each product edible weight
• Analyses made of pooled samples
• HPLC
• Total fructan via enzymatic analyses [19]
• Result presented in g/ 100 g “as eaten” in fresh weight.
[20] Whelan et al.2011 Nine categories of bread Fructan Five brands of each bread category and 500 g of each category of bread from Supermarkets was pooled together to 2500 g • Analyses made of pooled samples
• Fructan via enzymatic and spectrophotometry method [18]
Triplicate bread samples were extracted and analyzed
in duplicates.
• Result presented as content g/100 g fresh weight (‘as
consumed’)
[13] Andersson et al.2009 Rye kernels and five kind of whole grain rye soft- and crispbread baked on one type of rye kernels Fructan Rye kernels 18 samples from an experimental field, Sweden • Fructan via enzymatic and spectrophotometry method [18]
• Result presented in dry weight
• Duplicate analysis
[14] Haskå et al.
2008
Two cultivars of wheat grain and five milling fractions of the wheat Fructan Two cultivars, one sample conventionally and organically grown. One cultivar conventionally grown in Sweden • Enzymatic [18]
• Duplicate analysis
• Result presented in dry weight
[21] Yao et al. 2014 Seventy-three food items Sorbitol and mannitol Five grocery stores, five green grocers, Australia Melbourne • HPLC with ELSD
• Triplicate analyses
• Result presented in fresh weight
  1. HPLC High performance liquid chromatography, ELSD Evaporative light scattering detection