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Table 3 Nested cohort by urinary sodium to potassium (Na:K) ratio, low, medium and high groups, WHO – SAGE Ghana Wave 3 (2019)

From: Salt and potassium intake among adult Ghanaians: WHO-SAGE Ghana Wave 3

Characteristics Low Na: K (<  2)
n = 399
Medium
Na: K (2–5)
n = 389
High Na: K (> 5)
n = 41
p value
Age yrs 60 (18) 61 (19) 58 (22) 0.44
Sex male, n (%) n = 399
139 (34.8)
n = 389
116 (29.8)
n = 41
12 (29.3)
0.29
Ethnicity n (%) n = 397 n = 387 n = 41 <  0.01
 Akan 229 (57.7) 246 (63.6) 17 (41.5)  
 Ga 5 (1.3) 29 (7.5) 10 (24.4)  
 Ewe 31 (7.8) 23 (5.9) 1 (2.4)  
 Mole-dagbon 13 (3.3) 11 (2.8) 0 (0.0)  
 Mole-busanga 2 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0)  
 Grusi 7 (3.0) 5 (1.3) 0 (0.0)  
 Guan 12 (3.0) 4 (1.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Gruma 3 (0.8) 3 (0.8) 0 (0.0)  
 Other 95 (23.9) 65 (16.8) 173 (21)  
Urban n (%) n = 398
183 (46.0)
n = 389
240 (61.7)
n = 41
26 (63.4)
< 0.01
Education (years) n = 253
10 (4)
n = 267
10 (5)
n = 26
10 (6)
0.51
BMI kg/m2 n = 387
24.8 (7.0)
n = 364
25.7 (7.4)
n = 39
28.1 (8.2)
0.04
Salt intake g/d n = 398
7.5 (7.4)ab
n = 384
8.6 (6.6)ac
n = 40
13.9 (11.9)bc
< 0.01
K intake, mmol/d n = 399
93.4 (97.8)ab
n = 389
49.5 (38.7)b
n = 41
38.2 (38.4)a
< 0.01
Na: K n = 399
1.4 (0.6)ab
n = 389
3.0 (1.3)ac
n = 41
5.5 (1.3)bc
<  0.01
Urinary iodine excretion, mmol/day n = 383
129.7 (116.0)a
n = 370
153.9 (164.4)
n = 40
146.9 (193.9)a
< 0.01
Systolic BP, mmHg n = 398
126 (26)
n = 385
126 (32.0)
n = 40
125 (34.0)
0.03
Diastolic BP, mmHg n = 398
77 (17.0)
n = 385
75 (17.0)
n = 40
77 (18.0)
0.25
Pulse pressure, mmHg n = 398
48 (16.6)
n = 385
51 (17.0)
n = 40
51.7 (15.0)
0.26
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), mmHg n = 399
93.7 (18.8)
n = 387
92.5 (21.2)
n = 41
91.7 (25.3)
0.61
Hypertension Prevalence, n (%) n = 398
170 (42.7)
n = 387
178 (46.0)
n = 40
18 (45.0)
0.65
Hypertension awareness, n (% of hypertension prevalence) n = 170
102 (60.0)
n = 178
106 (59.6)
n = 18
11 (61.1)
0.10
AHT, current use n (% of hypertension awareness) n = 102
65 (63.7)
n = 106
79 (74.8)
n = 11
7 (63.6)
0.22
Hypertension control, n (% of AHT) n = 63
33 (52.5)
n = 78
40 (51.3)
n = 7
3 (42.9)
0.89
Stroke, n (%) n = 399
11 (2.8)
n = 389
7 (1.8)
n = 41
0 (0.0)
0.45
Diabetes, n (%) n = 399
34 (8.5)
n = 389
30 (7.7)
n = 41
2 (4.9)
0.69
Tobacco use, n (%) n = 399
45 (11.3)
n = 389
34 (8.7)
n = 41
0 (0.0)
0.05
Alcohol use, n (%) n = 399
160 (40.1)
n = 389
172 (44.2)
n = 41
19 (46.3)
0.44
Fruits and Veg., met recommendation n (%) n = 399
212 (53.1)
n = 389
203 (52.2)
n = 41
24 (58.5)
0.74
Frequently add salt to food at the table, n (%) n = 399
52 (13)
n = 389
48 (12.3)
n = 41
6 (14.6)
0.88
Frequently add salt to cooking at home, n (%) n = 399
320 (80.0)
n = 389
311 (79.9)
n = 41
33 (80.5)
0.30
Believes that they are eating just the right amount of salt n (%) n = 397
247 (62.2)
n = 387
231 (59.7)
n = 41
24 (58.5)
0.48
Believes a high salt diet can cause a serious health problem, n (%) n = 389
304 (78.1)
n = 375
311 (82.9)
n = 40
30 (75.0)
0.18
Does something to control salt consumption, n (%) n = 389
166 (42.7)
n = 375
209 (55.7)
n = 39
15 (61.5)
< 0.01
  1. Data are presented as median (IQR, interquartile range) unless otherwise stated. BMI, body; hypertension prevalence, BP ≥ 140/90 or previous diagnosis; AHT, antihypertensive medication use in the last 2 weeks; BMI, body mass index; tobacco use by self-report; alcohol use by self-report; met fruits and vegetable recommendation indicates consumed five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day; salt behaviour responses, frequently indicates ‘always’ and ‘often’; continuous variables compared using Independent Kruskal-Wallis Test and categorical variables compared using Pearson Chi-Square Test and Fisher’s Exact Test. a, b, c; sig at p < 0.05