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Table 3 Quintile Cross-Classification and Spearman’s Correlations for Fermented and Non-Fermented Foods

From: Prevalence of fermented foods in the Dutch adult diet and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for estimating their intake in the NQplus cohort

  Agreement of Quintiles for Food Group Intakea Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (rs)
Food Group Same Quintile (%) Adjacent Quintile (%) Extreme Quintile (%)b Crude Energy-Adjusted
Fermented beverages 47.6 40.9 0.4 0.80** 0.78**
 Coffee 48.8 37.2 0.9 0.76** 0.74**
 Beer 39.9 35.0 1.7 0.67** 0.53**
 Wine 46.4 38.9 0.3 0.76** 0.74**
Fermented cereals/grains 38.1 41.3 1.2 0.68** 0.63**
 Brown bread 30.3 34.9 6.2 0.25** 0.28**
 White bread 35.2 34.5 4.7 0.33** 0.35**
 Wholegrain bread 38.8 37.9 1.9 0.61** 0.55**
 Rye bread 33.9 34.2 3.0 0.43** 0.42**
 Other bread 28.1 32.1 6.8 0.11** 0.17**
 Pastries 29.2 33.7 5.4 0.20** 0.27**
Chocolate 27.8 39.8 3.8 0.36** 0.38**
Fermented dairy 43.1 40.2 0.9 0.68** 0.69**
 Cheeses 32.9 38.1 2.2 0.46** 0.47**
 Yoghurts 34.5 41.5 1.7 0.56** 0.55**
 Quark 30.2 36.3 5.3 0.13** 0.31**
Buttermilk 25.2 32.6 5.6 0.10** 0.18**
Non-fermented dairy 40.9 41.5 0.9 0.68** 0.67**
 Butter 36.6 37.6 2.5 0.48** 0.51**
 Cream 28.7 30.5 5.4 0.20** 0.21**
 Ice cream 26.1 35.1 5.7 0.23** 0.21**
 Milk 40.9 41.9 1.1 0.67** 0.66**
Non-fermented soya 34.1 36.0 4.1 0.40** 0.41**
  1. FFQ Food frequency questionnaire. **, p < 0.01.
  2. aMean energy-adjusted intake values for each food group were used to divide participants into quintiles
  3. bPercentage of 1st quintile participants in the FFQ classified into the 5th quintile in the recall, or vice versa