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Table 4 Metabolic profile in women and men (n = 393) by predicted stepwise discriminative cardiometabolic risk groupsa

From: Healthy eating index patterns in adults by sex and age predict cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-sectional study

Metabolic variables sex Phenotyping study SE P-value FDRd
Low CMDrf High CMDrf Risk
BMI (kg/m2) women 23.6 29.1 0.44 < 0.01 < 0.01
men 23.0 28.4 0.58
LDLc (mg/dL) women 99.5 110 3.51 < 0.01 < 0.01
men 93.9 114 3.62
HDLc (mg/dL) women 70.7 56.9 1.44 < 0.01 < 0.01
men 56.8 47.2 1.98
Cholesterol (mg/dL) women 177 183 3.53 < 0.01 0.02
men 161 179 3.72
Triglycerides (mg/dL) women 70.0 102 6.18 < 0.01 < 0.01
men 81.2 108 6.83
NEFA (mmol/L) women 0.32 0.36 0.01 0.06 0.08
men 0.32 0.33 0.01
Insulin (pmol/L) women 110 155 9.58 0.03 0.05
men 104 133 9.36
Glucose (mg/dL) women 91.3 95.4 1.17 0.24 0.28
men 94.9 96.9 1.36
HOMA women 1.32 2.41 0.24 < 0.01 0.01
men 1.50 2.54 0.22
MCT Matsuda Indexb women 14.6 9.44 1.22 < 0.01 < 0.01
men 17.0 12.6 1.96
HbA1C % women 5.26 5.31 0.05 0.28 0.69
men 5.27 5.31 0.04
Systolic (mm Hg) women 117 118 1.11 0.05 0.10
men 118 122 1.25
Diastolic (mm Hg) women 65 68 1.01 0.04 0.05
men 66 72 1.32
Framingham risk (Log)c women 0.79 1.05 0.09 0.03 0.05
men 1.94 1.70 0.15
  1. aMean differences between predicted cardiometabolic risk group BMI, lipid and glucose profiles were examined using Student’s t-test. The model interactions age, sex with predicted risk was not significant
  2. bMeal challenge test Matsuda Index cut-off of < 8.8 is indicative of insulin resistance
  3. cThe Risk Calculator estimate 10-year and lifetime risks for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), provided by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. Non-normally distributed risk (%) was log-transformed
  4. dFalse discovery rate post-hoc p-adjustment