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Table 1 Participants’ demographic characteristics, according to gender: the CASPIAN-V study

From: Association of vitamin D status and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-V study

Variables* Total (n = 2596) Boys (n = 1430) Girls (n = 1166) P-value
Age, yearsa 12.18(3.04) 12.32(3.01) 11.99(3.07) < 0.001
Regionb     0.79
 Urban 1850(71.3) 1022(71.5) 828(71)  
 Rural 746(28.7) 408(28.5) 338(29)  
PAb     0.01
 Low 817(33.4) 417(31.2) 400(36.1)  
 Moderate 794(32.5) 435(32.6) 359(32.4)  
 High 833(34.1) 483(36.2) 350(31.6)  
STb     0.24
 Low 2164(85.5) 1179(84.8) 985(86.4)  
 High 367(14.5) 212(15.2) 155(13.6)  
SESb     < 0.001
 Low 808(32.6) 405(29.4) 403(36.6)  
 Moderate 827(33.4) 496(36) 331(30.1)  
 High 843(34) 477(34.6) 366(33.3)  
WC, cma 66.75(12.38) 67.31(13.02) 66.05(11.51) < 0.001
Vitamin D ng/dla 25.94(11.33) 26.11(11.10) 25.74(11.62) 0.40
SBP, mmHga 98.45(12.98) 99.14(13.16) 97.59(12.72) < 0.001
DBP, mmHga 63.46(10.15) 63.64(10.39) 63.25(9.86) 0.32
HDL-C, mg/dla 46.62(10.12) 46.72(10.24) 46.49(9.96) 0.55
TG, mg/dla 86.45(46.93) 84.86(46.19) 88.41(47.78) 0.05
FBG, mg/dla 91.99 (12.48) 92.35 (13.25) 91.56 (11.45) 0.11
  1. aData are presented as mean (standard deviation)
  2. bData are presented as Number (%)
  3. BMI body mass index, WC, Waist circumference, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, TC Total cholesterol, HDL High density lipoprotein, LDL Low density lipoprotein, TG Triglycerides; FBG Fasting blood glucose, PA Physical activity, ST Screen time, SES Socioeconomic statue