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Table 4 Comparison of Mean ± SD of FBS, insulin, and HOMA-IR within and between the groups

From: Pomegranate juice intake enhances the effects of aerobic training on insulin resistance and liver enzymes in type 2 diabetic men: a single-blind controlled trial

Variables AT + PJI (n = 9) AT (n = 10) PJI (n = 9) C (n = 10) P-Value a
FBS (mg/dl)      
 Before 144.44 ± 3.12 145.10 ± 3.84 146.88 ± 7.42 146.90 ± 7.24
 After 126.44 ± 3.50 133.10 ± 3.95 139.33 ± 6.34 149.09 ± 7.53
 P† P = 0.001* P = 0.001* P = 0.001* P = 0.002*
 Δ −18 ± 0.38 μ€β −12 ± 0.11 €β −7.55 ± 1.08 β 2.19 ± 0.29 0.001 ¥
Insulin (μU/ml)
 Before 7.30 ± 0.70 7.31 ± 0.86 7.06 ± 0.75 7.30 ± 0.78  
 After 6.65 ± 1.09 7 ± 0.87 6.95 ± 0.76 7.38 ± 0.90  
 P† P = 0.001* P = 0.021* P = 0.042* P = 0.049*  
 Δ −0.65 ± 0.39 μ€β −0.31 ± 0.01 €β −0.11 ± 0.01 β 0.08 ± 0.12 0.039 ¥
HOMA-IR      
 Before 2.60 ± 0.27 2.62 ± 0.30 2.56 ± 0.29 2.65 ± 0.37
 After 2.08 ± 0.33 2.30 ± 0.25 2.39 ± 0.26 2.72 ± 0.40
 P† P = 0.001* P = 0.024* P = 0.043* P = 0.049*
 Δ −0.52 ± 0.06 μ€β −0.32 ± 0.05 €β −0.17 ± 0.03 β 0.07 ± 0.03 0.026 ¥
AST (U/L)
 Before 37.88 ± 0.74 38.23 ± 0.68 36.22 ± 1.20 36.48 ± 1.20  
 After 26.33 ± 0.70 32.33 ± 0.16 33.85 ± 0.78 38.01 ± 1.09  
 P† P = 0.001* P = 0.024* P = 0.038* P = 0.045*  
 Δ −11.55 ± 0.04 μ€β −5.90 ± 0.52€β −2.37 ± 0.42β 1.53 ± 0.11 0.001 ¥
ALT (U/L)
 Before 39.07 ± 4.01 38.80 ± 3.21 36.77 ± 3.27 36.20 ± 3.02  
 After 29.11 ± 2.42 33.85 ± 2.17 32.55 ± 3.21 39.76 ± 3.20  
 P† P = 0.001* P = 0.012* P = 0.025* P = 0.039*  
 Δ −9.96 ± 1.59μ€β −4.95 ± 1.04 €β −4.22 ± 0.06β 3.56 ± 0.18 0.001 ¥
GGT (U/L)
 Before 38.22 ± 2.53 39.22 ± 2.68 38.33 ± 3.39 39.18 ± 2.63  
 After 29.44 ± 1.66 34.01 ± 2.36 34.22 ± 2.58 41.45 ± 3.35  
 P† P = 0.001* P = 0.010* P = 0.027* P = 0.041*  
 Δ −8.78 ± 0.87μ€β −5.21 ± 0.3€β −4.11 ± 0.81 β 2.27 ± 0.72 0.011 ¥
  1. AT + PJI Aerobic training + pomegranate juice intake group, AT Aerobic training group, PJI pomegranate juice intake group, C the control group
  2. *Data analysis was done by the analysis of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference posthoc Tukey’s test after adjustment for baseline values; P†: Statistical analysis was done by paired sample t-test
  3. *: Significantly different in comparison pre and post within the groups
  4. ¥: Significantly different comparing Δ between groups
  5. μ: Significantly different compared with AT
  6. €: Significantly different compared with PJI
  7. β: Significantly different compared with C