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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for analytic samples, NDHS 1996–2016

From: Gender, nutritional disparities, and child survival in Nepal

  1996 2001 2006 2011 2016
Variable n Mean or % St. Dev. n Mean or % St. Dev. n Mean or % St. Dev. n Mean or % St. Dev. n Mean or % St. Dev.
Breastfed within 1 Hour 3615 37.4% 0.48 4315 49.1% 0.50 4976 57.9% 0.49 4990 69.6% 0.46 4667 73.5% 0.44
Breastfeeding Duration 4038 15.2 9.43 6247 20.8 12.71 5385 21.4 12.75 3688 26.0 16.60 2736 20.5 13.61
Child is Alive 4129 92.8% 0.26 6371 92.7% 0.26 5465 94.4% 0.23 5004 95.4% 0.21 4674 96.6% 0.18
Child is Female 4129 48.5% 0.50 6371 49.9% 0.50 5465 49.6% 0.50 5004 47.7% 0.50 4674 47.1% 0.50
Child’s Age in Months 4129 16.4 10.61 6371 28.2 17.91 5465 29.0 17.78 5004 28.9 17.85 4674 29.5 17.67
Birth Order & Sibling Gender
Firstborn 4129 21.3% 0.41 6371 22.1% 0.41 5465 28.4% 0.45 5004 31.6% 0.46 4674 38.1% 0.49
2nd/3rd Born No Brothers 4129 8.1% 0.27 6371 9.1% 0.29 5465 11.3% 0.32 5004 12.1% 0.33 4674 13.1% 0.34
2nd/3rd Born Has Brother(s) 4129 30.0% 0.46 6371 30.4% 0.46 5465 31.1% 0.46 5004 32.5% 0.47 4674 31.1% 0.46
4+ Born No Brothers 4129 1.8% 0.13 6371 2.1% 0.14 5465 2.2% 0.15 5004 2.0% 0.14 4674 2.1% 0.14
4+ Born Has Brother(s) 4129 38.8% 0.49 6371 36.3% 0.48 5465 27.0% 0.44 5004 21.8% 0.41 4674 15.6% 0.36
Maternal age 4129 27.0 6.44 6371 28.0 6.40 5465 27.1 6.15 5004 27.1 5.96 4674 26.5 5.49
Maternal Education
None 4129 80.8% 0.39 6371 75.2% 0.43 5465 62.0% 0.49 5004 47.8% 0.50 4674 33.9% 0.47
Primary 4129 10.6% 0.31 6371 13.5% 0.34 5465 17.5% 0.38 5004 19.4% 0.40 4674 19.9% 0.40
Secondary or Higher 4129 8.6% 0.28 6371 11.3% 0.32 5465 20.4% 0.40 5004 32.7% 0.47 4674 46.3% 0.50
Urban 4129 8.5% 0.28 6371 8.3% 0.28 5465 22.3% 0.42 5004 20.3% 0.40 4674 56.8% 0.50
Poor Household 4129 46.4% 0.50 6371 48.0% 0.50 5465 50.9% 0.50 5004 52.8% 0.50 4674 48.7% 0.50
Household Size 4129 7.4 3.81 6371 7.1 3.41 5465 6.6 3.21 5004 6.0 2.59 4674 6.1 2.90
Hindu 4129 86.0% 0.35 6371 83.8% 0.37 5465 87.0% 0.34 5004 85.7% 0.35 4674 87.1% 0.34
Caste/Ethnicity
Brahaman/Chhetri 4129 31.7% 0.47 6371 32.2% 0.47 5465 33.6% 0.47 5004 38.0% 0.49 4674 33.6% 0.47
Tarai/Madhesi Other Castes 4129 9.2% 0.29 6371 11.8% 0.32 5465 11.7% 0.32 5004 7.2% 0.26 4674 14.8% 0.35
Dalits 4129 15.9% 0.37 6371 15.7% 0.36 5465 16.7% 0.37 5004 18.4% 0.39 4674 15.0% 0.36
Newar/Janajati 4129 38.2% 0.49 6371 35.2% 0.48 5465 33.3% 0.47 5004 32.2% 0.47 4674 30.4% 0.46
Muslim/Other Caste 4129 5.0% 0.22 6371 5.2% 0.22 5465 4.7% 0.21 5004 4.2% 0.20 4674 6.2% 0.24
Region
Mountain 4129 14.5% 0.35 6371 15.8% 0.36 5465 15.4% 0.36 5004 19.7% 0.40 4674 9.2% 0.29
Hill 4129 41.8% 0.49 6371 37.6% 0.48 5465 39.0% 0.49 5004 40.5% 0.49 4674 42.3% 0.49
Terai 4129 43.8% 0.50 6371 46.6% 0.50 5465 45.6% 0.50 5004 39.9% 0.49 4674 48.5% 0.50
Interview Month 4129 8.4 4.39 6371 6.8 4.81 5465 5.3 4.07 5004 7.1 4.91 4674 6.1 2.04
  1. Note: Sample sizes for breastfeeding variables are smaller than those for sociodemographics because these questions were not asked for all children due to legitimate skips (e.g., valid missing for children who had never been breastfed)