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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the population according to USDA Household Food Security Module (N = 91)

From: Impact of fruits and vegetables vouchers on food insecurity in disadvantaged families from a Paris suburb

Food insecurity status (HFSM) Food secure N = 29 (31.9%) Food insecure, without hunger N = 24 (26.4%) Food insecure, with hunger N = 38 (41.7%) p value*
  mean +/−SD mean +/−SD mean +/−SD  
Parent’s age (years) 39.4 7.9 40 7.2 39.6 7.2 0.81
Child’s age (years) 7.5 2.4 7.9 2 7.2 2.6 0.47
EPICES score 50.6 15 55.1 17.7 65 14.8 < 0.001
Budget for food (in € /individual/month) 89.6 49.5 90.4 25.3 108.8 63.9 0.13
Budget for FV (in € /individual /month) 25.0 17.5 28.6 17.5 30.6 21.1 0.26
  n % n % n %  
Place of birth of the parent
 France 12 41.4 6 25 11 28.9 0.39
 Other country 17 58.6 18 75 27 71.1  
Marital status
 Single 23 79 24 100 37 97.4 0.01
 Cohabiting 6 21 0 0 1 2.6  
 Size of the household
 2 people 8 27.6 4 16.7 9 23.7 0.93
 3 people 7 24.1 7 29.2 10 26.3  
 4 people and more 14 48.3 13 54.2 19 50  
Education level
 Primary school 6 20.7 7 29.2 16 42.1 0.10
 Secondary school 10 34.5 9 37.5 15 39.5  
 Baccalaureat and university 13 44.8 6 25 6 15.8  
 Other 0 0 2 8.3 1 2.6  
Professional status
 Working 10 34.5 6 25 10 26.3 0.69
 Unemployed 19 65.5 18 75 28 73.7  
Income level (in € per c.u.)
 260 € at the most 4 13.8 6 26.1 12 31.6 0.34
 400 € at the most 13 44.8 10 43.5 18 47.4  
 800 € at the most 12 41.4 7 30.4 8 21.0  
Perception of the financial situation of the household
 It’s OK 2 6.9 0 0 0 0 < 0.01
 Need to be very cautious 15 51.7 10 41.7 6 15.8  
 It’s difficult 8 27.6 9 37.5 16 42.1  
 Often making debts 4 13.8 5 20.8 16 42.1  
Food aid use over the past 12 months
 No 22 78.6 19 79.2 26 70.3 0.65
 Yes 6 21.4 5 20.8 11 29.7  
Purchasing frequency for FV
 Several times a week 12 41.4 9 37.5 18 47.4 0.32
 Once a week 9 31 13 54.2 14 36.8  
 2 or 3 times a month 8 27.6 2 8.3 5 13.2  
Study group
 Intervention 12 41.4 11 45.8 22 57.9 0.37
 Control 17 58.6 13 54.2 16 42.1  
  1. Abbreviations: c.u consumer unit, Euros, FV Fruits and vegetables, HFSM Household Food Security Module, SD Standard Deviation
  2. *Chi-square tests and exact Fisher tests were performed for qualitative variables and Anova tests were performed for quantitative variables;
  3. Missing data: Budget for food and budget for FV: N = 3 (3.2%); Use of food aid N = 2 (2.2%); Income level and purchasing frequency for FV: N = 1 (1.0%);