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  • Correction
  • Open Access

Correction to: The impact of food reformulation on nutrient intakes and health, a systematic review of modelling studies

  • 1Email author,
  • 2,
  • 1,
  • 2 and
  • 1, 3
BMC Nutrition20195:9

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-019-0269-8

  • Received: 11 January 2019
  • Accepted: 11 January 2019
  • Published:

The original article was published in BMC Nutrition 2019 5:2

Correction to: BMC Nutr (2019) 5:2

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-018-0263-6

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported an error in Table 1. The rows and columns do not align correctly. The correct table can be found below.
Table 1

Interventions targeting sodium consumption

Author (year)

Study Characteristics

Study Outcomes

Model type

Time horizon

Target foods

Type of intervention(s)

Voluntary or mandatory

Reduction in intake

Reduction in blood pressure (BP)

Life years gained and reduction in the incidence of health outcomes

Results on QOL measures

Cogswell et al. (2017) [29]

Mathematical/Statistical

Not modelled

All processed food

↓28% in Na content (Health Canada Benchmarks)

Mandatory

0.61 Na g/day (22%, UI = 0.59–0.63)

Choi et al. (2016) [30]

Micro-simulation

10y

All processed foods

Product reformulated to meet product-specific NSRI criteria extended to all food producers in the US

Mandatory

0.365 (SE = 0.9) Na g/day (10.9%)

Hypertension: 0.97%

All AMI: 2.59%

All strokes: 2.67%

Fatal AMI: 0.36%

Fatal Strokes: 0.23%

Food and Drink Industry Ireland (2016) [26]

Mathematical/Statistical

Not modelled

10 Food macrocategories

Reformulation based on actual FDII voluntary programme

Mandatory extension of existing programme

0.57 Na g/day (17.8%) in adults

Voluntary

0.06 Na g/day (2.3%) in adults

Leroy et al. (2016) [32]

Epidemiological

1y

F&V, bread, meat, fish, sandwiches, sauces

Strong reformulation based on the Choices Programme criteria

Mandatory

12.7% daily Na intake

Fatal CVD/Strokes deaths averted: 422

Cance deaths averted: 187

Mild reformulation based on the Choices Programme criteria

Mandatory

9.3% daily Na intake

CVD/Strokes and Cancer deaths averted: 2408 (3.7%) - due to total reductions in Na, SFA and sugar consumption combined

Masset et al. (2016) [25]

Mathematical/Statistical

Not modelled

Pizza

Reformulation to meet Nestlè Nutrient Profiling targets

Mandatory

0.14 Na g/day (4%)

Nghiem et al. (2016) [42]

Markov

Cohort life-time

All processed foods

59% substitution of NaCl with other salts (K, Mg)

Mandatory

1.82 Na g/day (51.5%)

12,783 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 10,348–15,609)

25% substitution of NaCl with other salts (K, Mg)

Mandatory

0.77 Na g/day (21.8%)

5261 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 4230–6391)

Bread

↓38,5% in NaCl content

Mandatory

0.28 Na g/day (7.9%)

1891 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 1509–2296)

↓11,1% in NaCl content

Mandatory

0.08 Na g/day (2.3%)

678 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 548–822)

Wilson et al. (2016) [43]

Markov

Cohort life-time

All processed foods (bread, processed meats, sauces, snack food, bakery, cheese)

↓36% in NaCl content across product types

Mandatory

0.628 Na g/day

5304 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 4270–6478)

Voluntary

Same efficacy with higher uncertainty

5000 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 3709–6391)

Bread

↓12–37% in NaCl content across bread types

Mandatory

0.043 Na g/day

387 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 309–470)

Voluntary

Same efficacy with higher uncertainty

365 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 270–461)

Processed meats

↓35–55% in NaCl content overall

Mandatory

0.069 Na g/day

583 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 470–704)

Voluntary

Same efficacy with higher uncertainty

552 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 417–696)

Sauces

↓30–63% in NaCl content across sauces types

Mandatory

0.104 Na g/day

870 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 700–1057)

Voluntary

Same efficacy with higher uncertainty

822 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 626–1039)

Combination of bread, processed meats and sauces

Mandatory

0.217 Na g/day

1843 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 1487–2239)

Voluntary

Same efficacy with higher uncertainty

1743 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 1326–2204)

Snack food

↓34–48% in NaCl content across snacks types

Mandatory

0.032 Na g/day

265 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 217–322)

Voluntary

Same efficacy with higher uncertainty

252 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 191–317)

Bread and bakery products

↓12–37% in NaCl content across bread types; ↓54–63% in NaCl content across other bakery products

Mandatory

0.107 Na g/day

887 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 722–1078)

Voluntary

Same efficacy with higher uncertainty

843 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 639–1061)

Cheese

↓27–42% in NaCl content across cheese types

Mandatory

0.045 Na g/day

383 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 309–461)

Voluntary

Same efficacy with higher uncertainty

361 QALYs gained/100000 pop. (UI = 274–457)

Bruins et al. (2015) [45]

Mathematical/Statistical

Cohort life-time

Soups

↓25% in Na content

Mandatory

0.05 Na g/day

0.11 mmHg

Strokes: 0.49%

6.45 DALYs averted/100000 pop

AMI: 0.34%

Angina: 0.34%

CHF: 0.24%

Dötsch-Klerk et al. (2015) [23]

Mathematical/Statistical

Not modelled

All processed foods

Products reformulated to meet the 6 g/day NaCl consumption target

Mandatory

US: 1.8 Na g/day (23%)

UK: 1.8 Na g/day (27%)

NL: 1.3 Na g/day (19%)

Products reformulated to meet the 5 g/day NaCl consumption target

Mandatory

US: 2.2 Na g/day (28%)

UK: 2.1 Na g/day (32%)

NL: 1.8 Na g/day (26%)

Gillespie et al. (2015) [31]

Epidemiological

10y

All processed foods

↓30% in NaCl

Mandatory

0.58 Na g/day (UI = 0.56–0.60)

0.81 mmHg '(UI = 0.53–1.10)

CHD deaths averted or postponed: 4467 (UI = 2854–6147)

↓10% in NaCl

Mandatory

0.19 Na g/day (UI = 0.18–0.20)

0.27 mmHg (UI = 0.18–0.37)

CHD deaths averted or postponed: 1502 (UI = 953–2068)

↓24% in NaCl

Voluntary (applied to 39% of products)

0.19 Na g/day (UI = 0.03–0.63)

0.27 mmHg (UI = 0.04–0.92)

CHD deaths averted or postponed: 1474 (UI = 220–4995)

Hendriksen et al. (2015) [22]

Mathematical/Statistical

Not modelled

Selected foods contributing to high intakes of NaCl

↓50% in NaCl content on average

Mandatory

0.9 Na g/day (37%)

Nghiem et al. (2015) [46]

Markov

Cohort life-time

All processed foods

↓25% in NaCl

Mandatory

0.525 Na g/day (15%)

4783 QALYs gained/100000 pop (UI = 3804–7174)

Breads, processed meats and sauces

↓25% in NaCl

Mandatory

0.296 Na g/day (9%)

2683 QALYs gained/100000 pop (UI = 2161–3256)

Wilcox et al. (2015) [34]

Epidemiological

10y

Not modelled

Not modelled

Mandatory

0.005 Na g/day (10%) (UI = 0.003–0.021)

1.15 mmHg (UI = 0.57–4.58)

CHD Deaths averted: 497 (UI = 130–3032)

LYG: 11192 (UI = 5679–41,039)

Collins et al. (2014) [36]

Epidemiological

10y

Not modelled

↓15% in NaCl content overall

Voluntary

1.21 Na g/day (UI = 0.32–1.94)

LYG: 14593(UI = 9000–21,049)

↓20% in NaCl content overall

Mandatory

1.62 Na g/day (UI = 0.65–3.11)

LYG: 19365(UI = 11,967–27,887)

Hendriksen et al. (2014) [47]

Markov

20y (clinical outcomes); cohort life-time (DALYs)

All processed foods

↓50% in NaCl content on average

Mandatory

2.3 Na g/day (28%)

1.5 mmHg (1.2%)

4.4% AMI (UI = 3.1–5.6%)

0.5% DALYs averted in the population (UI = 0.37–0.68%)

CHF: 1.8% (UI = 1.3–2.3%)

Strokes: 6% (UI = 4.1–7.8%)

Increase in life expectancy: 0.7% (UI = 0.5–0.9%)

Mason et al. (2014) [53]

Epidemiological

10y

Not modelled

Not modelled

Mandatory

10% daily Na intake (UI = 5–40%)

Tunisia: LYG 2272 (UI = 1151–3361)

Syria: LYG 11192 (UI = 5679–41,039)

Palestine: LYG 945 (UI = 479–3479)

Turkey: LYG 135221 (UI = 68,816–487,712)

Konfino et al. (2013) [37]

Markov

10y

All processed foods

↓8% in NaCl intake (stepped reduction by 4% for the first 2y)

Mandatory (80% of sodium from processed foods)

0.353 Na g/day

1.00–2.00 mmHg

Total Deaths: 0.61%

Fatal CHD: 0.98%

AMI: 1.48%

Strokes: 0.99%

↓40% in NaCl intake (4% per year for 10y)

Mandatory (80% of sodium from processed foods)

1.763 Na g/day

5.00–9.00 mmHg

Total Deaths: 1.77%

Fatal CHD: 2.63%

AMI: 4.27%

Strokes: 2.79%

Bertram et al. (2012) [38]

Epidemiological

1y

Bread, margarine, gravy, soups

↓54% in NaCl content on average

Mandatory

0.85 Na g/day

Strokes: 8%

CHD: 6.5%

Hypertensive heart disease: 11%

Cobiac et al. (2012) [48]

Markov

Cohort life-time

Bread, margarine, breakfast cereals

Based on Heart Foundation Tick Programme: ↓26% in NaCl content in bread; 11% in margarine and 61% in breakfast cereals

Mandatory

0.009 Na g/day

1451 DALYs averted/100000 pop (UI = 1088–1813)

Combris et al. (2011) [8]

Mathematical/Statistical

Not modelled

Breakfast cereals

Mild to strong reformulation based on food nutrient distribution

Mandatory

0.001–0.013 Na g/day (1.4–13.5%)

Biscuits/ pastries

0.0003–0.002 Na g/day (1.70–10.81%)

Bread-based products

0.0023–0.013 Na g/day (1.60–8.8%)

Cobiac et al. (2010) [49]

Epidemiological

Cohort life-time

Bread, margarine, breakfast cereals

Based on Heart Foundation Tick Programme: ↓26% in NaCl content in bread; 11% in margarine and 61% in breakfast cereals

Voluntary

0.009 Na g/day

5300 DALYs averted (UI = 2600–9200)

Mandatory extension of actual program to all products

110,000 DALYs averted (UI = 53,000–180,000)

Smith-Spangler et al. (2010) [50]

Markov

Cohort life-time

Not modelled

Not modelled

Voluntary

9.5% daily Na intake (UI = 5–40%)

1.25 mmHg

Strokes averted: 513885

2,060,790 DALYs averted

AMI averted: 480538

Roodenburg et al. (2009) [27]

Mathematical/Statistical

Not modelled

All processed foods

Reformulation set to meet Choices Programme criteria

Mandatory

23% daily Na intake (10% adjusting for energy compensation)

Rubinstein et al. (2009) [51]

Markov

Cohort life-time

Bread

↓ to 1 g of NaCl per 100 g of bread

Voluntary

1.33 mmHg

18.7 DALYs averted/100000 pop

Murray et al. (2003) [52]

Markov

Cohort life-time

Not modelled

Not modelled

Mandatory

Assumed 30% Na Intake

AmrB: 3.11% on average

600,000 DALYs averted

EurA: 3.49% on average

1,300,000 DALYs averted

SearD: 3.49% on average

1,000,000 DALYs averted

Voluntary

Assumed 15% Na Intake

AmrB: 1.56% on average

300,000 DALYs averted in the population

EurA: 1.74% on average

700,000 DALYs averted in the population

SearD: 1.75% on average

500,000 DALYs averted in the population

Abbreviations: AMI Acute Myocardial Infarction, AmrB Region of the Americas group B, CHD Coronary Heart Disease, CHF Coronary Heart Failure, CVD Cardiovascular diseases, DALY Disability Adjusted Life Years, EurA European Region group A, FDII Food and Drink Industry Ireland, F&V fruit and vegetables, K potassium, LYG Life Years Gained, Mg magnesium, Na sodium, NaCl Sodium Chloride, NL Netherlands, NSRI National Salt Reduction Initiative, QALY Quality Adjusted Life Year, SearD Southeast Asian Region group D, UI Uncertainty Interval, UK United Kingdom, US United States of America

The publishers apologise for this error. The original article [1] has been updated.

Notes

Declarations

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
CeRGAS (Centre for Research on Health and Social Care Management), SDA Bocconi School of Management, Milan, Italy
(2)
Nestlé Research Center, Nestec SA, Lausanne, Switzerland
(3)
Department of Policy Analysis and Public Management, Bocconi University, Milan, Italy

Reference

  1. Federici C, et al. The impact of food reformulation on nutrient intakes and health, a systematic review of modelling studies. BMC Nutr. 2019;5:2 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-018-0263-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2019

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