OBrien K, Breyne K, Ughetto S, Laurent LC, Breakefield XO. RNA delivery by extracellular vesicles in mammalian cells and its applications. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2020;21(10):585–606.
Friedman RC, Farh KK, Burge CB, Bartel DP. Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs. Genome Res. 2009;19(1):92–105.
Kozomara A, Birgaoanu M, Griffiths-Jones S. miRBase: from microRNA sequences to function. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019;47(D1):D155–D62.
Wu Q, Song R, Ortogero N, Zheng H, Evanoff R, Small CL, et al. The RNase III enzyme DROSHA is essential for microRNA production and spermatogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287(30):25173–90.
Bernstein E, Kim SY, Carmell MA, Murchison EP, Alcorn H, Li MZ, et al. Dicer is essential for mouse development. Nat Genet. 2003;35(3):215–7.
Schirle NT, Sheu-Gruttadauria J, MacRae IJ. Structural basis for microRNA targeting. Science. 2014;346(6209):608–13.
Ricci EP, Limousin T, Soto-Rifo R, Rubilar PS, Decimo D, Ohlmann T. miRNA repression of translation in vitro takes place during 43S ribosomal scanning. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41(1):586–98.
Lasser C, Alikhani VS, Ekstrom K, Eldh M, Paredes PT, Bossios A, et al. Human saliva, plasma and breast milk exosomes contain RNA: uptake by macrophages. J Transl Med. 2011;9:9.
Izumi H, Kosaka N, Shimizu T, Sekine K, Ochiya T, Takase M. Bovine milk contains microRNA and messenger RNA that are stable under degradative conditions. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95(9):4831–41.
Sun J, Aswath K, Schroeder SG, Lippolis JD, Reinhardt TA, Sonstegard TS. MicroRNA expression profiles of bovine milk exosomes in response to Staphylococcus aureus infection. BMC Genomics. 2015;16(1):806.
Leiferman A, Shu J, Upadhyaya B, Cui J, Zempleni J. Storage of extracellular vesicles in human milk, and microRNA profiles in human milk exosomes and infant formulas. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019;69(2):235–8.
Escrevente C, Keller S, Altevogt P, Costa J. Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:108.
Baier SR, Nguyen C, Xie F, Wood JR, Zempleni J. MicroRNAs are absorbed in biologically meaningful amounts from nutritionally relevant doses of cow’s milk and affect gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, HEK-293 kidney cell cultures, and mouse livers. J Nutr. 2014;144:1495–500.
Wolf T, Baier SR, Zempleni J. The intestinal transport of bovine milk exosomes is mediated by endocytosis in human colon carcinoma caco-2 cells and rat small intestinal IEC-6 cells. J Nutr. 2015;145:2201–6.
Manca S, Upadhyaya B, Mutai E, Desaulniers AT, Cederberg RA, White BR, et al. Milk exosomes are bioavailable and distinct microRNA cargos have unique tissue distribution patterns. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):11321.
Zempleni J, Sukreet S, Zhou F, Wu D, Mutai E. Milk-derived exosomes and metabolic regulation. Annu Rev Anim Biosci. 2019;15(7):245–62.
Aguilar-Lozano A, Baier SR, Grove R, Shu J, Giraud D, Mercer KE, et al. Concentrations of purine metabolites are elevated in fluids from adults and infants and in livers from mice fed diets depleted of bovine milk exosomes and their RNA cargos. J Nutr. 2018;148:1886–94.
Leiferman A, Shu J, Grove R, Cui J, Adamec J, Zempleni J. A diet defined by its content of bovine milk exosomes and their RNA cargos has moderate effects on gene expression, amino acid profiles and grip strength in skeletal muscle in C57BL/6 mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2018;59:123–8.
Wu D, Kittana H, Shu J, Kachman SD, Cui J, Ramer-Tait AE, et al. Dietary depletion of milk exosomes and their microRNA cargos elicits a depletion of miR-200a-3p and elevated intestinal inflammation and CXCL9 expression in Mdr1a−/− mice. Curr Dev Nutr. 2019;3:122.
Zhou F, Paz HA, Sadri M, Cui J, Kachman SD, Fernando SC, et al. Dietary bovine bilk exosomes elicit changes in bacterial communities in C57BL/6 mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019;317(11):G618–G24.
Sadri M, Shu J, Kachman SD, Cui J, Zempleni J. Milk exosomes and microRNAs cross the placenta and promote embryo survival in mice. Reproduction. 2020;160:501–9.
Li B, Hock A, Wu RY, Minich A, Botts SR, Lee C, et al. Bovine milk-derived exosomes enhance goblet cell activity and prevent the development of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0211431.
Alsaweed M, Lai CT, Hartmann PE, Geddes DT, Kakulas F. Human milk miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary gland resulting in unique miRNA profiles of fractionated milk. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20680.
Melnik BC, Stremmel W, Weiskirchen R, John SM, Schmitz G. Exosome-derived microRNAs of human milk and their effects on infant health and development. Biomolecules. 2021;11(6):851
Technavio R. Soy-based infant formula market to grow by USD 277.69 million, at 3% CAGR during 2019-2023 Toronto, ON (Canada): Technavio; 2019 [Available from: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190626005474/en/.
Kent G. Regulating fatty acids in infant formula: critical assessment of U.S. policies and practices. Int Breastfeed J. 2014;9(1):2.
Vandenplas Y, Zakharova I, Dmitrieva Y. Oligosaccharides in infant formula: more evidence to validate the role of prebiotics. Brit J Nutr. 2015;113(9):1339–44.
Sharon N, Lis H. Lectins: cell-agglutinating and sugar-specific proteins. Science. 1972;177(4053):949–59.
Shtam TA, Burdakov VS, Landa SB, Naryzhny SN, Bairamukov VY, Malek AV, et al. Aggregation by lectin-methodical approach for effective isolation of exosomes from cell culture supernatant for proteome profiling. Tsitologiia. 2017;59(1):5–12.
Brandon DL, Friedman M. Immunoassays of soy proteins. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(22):6635–42.
Williams C, Royo F, Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Pazos R, Boons GJ, Reichardt NC, et al. Glycosylation of extracellular vesicles: current knowledge, tools and clinical perspectives. J Extracell Vesicles. 2018;7(1):1442985.
Pusztai A, Grant G. Assessment of lectin inactivation by heat and digestion. Methods Mol Med. 1998;9:505–14.
Sun X, Wang C, Wang H, Guo M. Effects of processing on structure and thermal properties of powdered preterm infant formula. J Food Sci. 2018;83(6):1685–94.
Zhou Q, Li M, Wang X, Li Q, Wang T, Zhu Q, et al. Immune-related microRNAs are abundant in breast milk exosomes. Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8(1):118–23.
Sukreet S, Pereira Braga C, An TT, Adamec J, Cui J, Trible B, et al. Isolation of extracellular vesicles from byproducts of cheese making by tangential flow filtration yields heterogeneous fractions of nanoparticles. J Dairy Sci. 2021;104:9478–93.
Izumi H, Tsuda M, Sato Y, Kosaka N, Ochiya T, Iwamoto H, et al. Bovine milk exosomes contain microRNA and mRNA and are taken up by human macrophages. J Dairy Sci. 2015;98(5):2920–33.
Watson PE, Watson ID, Batt RD. Total body water volumes for adult males and females estimated from simple anthropometric measurements. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980;33(1):27–39.
Balaj L, Atai NA, Chen W, Mu D, Tannous BA, Breakefield XO, et al. Heparin affinity purification of extracellular vesicles. Sci Rep. 2015;5:10266.
Zempleni J, Mock DM. Mitogen-induced proliferation increases biotin uptake into human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Am J Phys Cell Phys. 1999;276(5):C1079–84.
Wang L, Sadri M, Giraud D, Zempleni J. RNase H2-dependent polymerase chain reaction and elimination of confounders in sample collection, storage, and analysis strengthen evidence that microRNAs in bovine milk are bioavailable in humans. J Nutr. 2018;148(1):153–9.
Heintz-Buschart A, Yusuf D, Kaysen A, Etheridge A, Fritz JV, May P, et al. Isolation of nucleic acids from low biomass samples: detection and removal of sRNA contaminants. BMC Biol. 2018;16:52.
American Academy of Pediatrics, section on breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012;129(3):e827–e41.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding among U.S. children born 2010–2017, CDC national immunization surveys [Internet]. 2019 [cited 12/09/2020]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/data/nis_data/index.htm.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Births and Natality Atlanta, GA2017 [Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/births.htm.
Andres A, Cleves MA, Bellando JB, Pivik RT, Casey PH, Badger TM. Developmental status of 1-year-old infants fed breast milk, cow's milk formula, or soy formula. Pediatrics. 2012;129(6):1134–40.
Ong KK, Loos RJ. Rapid infancy weight gain and subsequent obesity: systematic reviews and hopeful suggestions. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(8):904–8.
Huang J, Zhang Z, Wu Y, Wang Y, Wang J, Zhou L, et al. Early feeding of larger volumes of formula milk is associated with greater body weight or overweight in later infancy. Nutr J. 2018;17(1):12.
Karaolis-Danckert N, Gunther AL, Kroke A, Hornberg C, Buyken AE. How early dietary factors modify the effect of rapid weight gain in infancy on subsequent body-composition development in term children whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(6):1700–8.
Chomtho S, Wells JC, Williams JE, Davies PS, Lucas A, Fewtrell MS. Infant growth and later body composition: evidence from the 4-component model. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(6):1776–84.
Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH, Smith GD, Cook DG. Does breastfeeding influence risk of type 2 diabetes in later life? A quantitative analysis of published evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(5):1043–54.
Singhal A. Early nutrition and long-term cardiovascular health. Nutr Rev. 2006;64(5 Pt 2):S44–9 discussion S72–91.