- Open Access
COVID-19 epidemic lockdown-induced remarkable decrease in dairy products consumption of Iran population: does it really matter? National Food and Nutrition Surveillance
BMC Nutrition volume 8, Article number: 122 (2022)
The pandemic of the newly emerged coronavirus infection and its related disease, Covid-19, has influenced various aspects of human life including dietary habits. This study aimed to examine changes in dairy products consumption during Covid-19 lockdown period in a huge sample of Iranian households.
A cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study using a web-based electronic self-administered questionnaire designed to detect any changes in the consumption frequency of dairy products in the Iranian households during Covid-19 lockdown.
A total of 21,290 households were enrolled. During Covid-19 epidemic lockdown, about 29%, 26% and 7% of the households had decreased their consumption frequency of milk, yogurt and cheese, respectively. The female-headed households were 21% more likely to decrease their consumption of milk, compared with male-headed households (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05–1.4). The households residing in food insecure provinces were 29%, 20% and 45% more likely to decrease their consumption of milk, yogurt and cheese as compared with those living in the food secure provinces. About 37%, 25.3%, 19.4% of those households who reported a decrease in consumption of dairy products had fully omitted them.
We found considerable decrement of dairy products consumption, especially milk and yogurt, in a high proportion of the studied households. Inadequate intake and, in some households, omission of dairy products can potentially bring about serious health outcomes with heavier economic burden. Further studies to track these changes over time and to evaluate their health consequences are warranted.
Emergence of the new coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China, in the late 2019 was followed by its rapid spread globally. The related disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Covid-19) brought about millions of morbidities and mortalities all over the world . Consequently, social distancing was advised by all scientific bodies and meanwhile many countries had to lock down all activities with the hope to reduce viral transmission. This situation inevitably affected many, if not all, aspects of human life including socioeconomic, educational and eating habits, just to name a few .
Many businesses especially retails were severely damaged with consequent remarkable decrease in the households’ incomes. To this, fear of viral transmission either through respiratory droplets during shopping or either via food items purchased from groceries caused a significant change in eating habits. Obviously, these changes can be different from one community to another . Some of these changes might be toward healthy eating including adherence to Mediterranean diet, eating more fruits and vegetables [4, 5] and decrease in fast foods and alcohol consumption [5, 6]. On the other hand, in some communities unhealthy dietary changes such as increased consumption of high calorie snacks and alcohol have been reported . Among the changes of dietary habits, dairy consumption is of special importance due to its direct relevance with such health outcomes as bone density and metabolic health [8, 9]. Though initially it was thought that these changes would be transient with minimal health effects, persistence of coronavirus infection throughout the world proved it was wrong. This study was, therefore, undertaken to examine changes in dairy products consumption during Covid-19 lockdown period in a sizable sample of Iranian households.
Study design and population
We conducted a cross-sectional study using a web-based electronic self-administered questionnaire specifically designed to detect any changes in the dietary pattern of the Iranian household following coronavirus epidemic, as comprehensively described elsewhere . A panel of nutrition experts (comprising of seven internal and three external specialists) confirmed the content validity. Then, the questionnaire was uploaded on a web link. The vice-chancellors in health affairs and the Community Nutrition Offices of the medical universities of all provinces were informed of the objectives of the project through an official letter sent from the Community Nutrition Office, Deputy of Health, Iran Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education (MOH). In that letter, nutrition officers and health workers were requested to notice the community under their service coverage and encourage them to participate in the project. To increase the number of participants, the questionnaire link was also widely distributed in several social media networks including Telegram and WhatsApp. This part of the survey was performed from 4 to 25 April, 2020, during which Iran was in lockdown for the epidemic. We classified the provinces based on food security situation to food insecure (deprived), semi-secure (semi-deprived) and secure (non-deprived)  for further inter-provincial comparisons.
Data about the questionnaire have been comprehensively presented previously [6, 10]. Briefly, each respondent had to complete the questionnaire for his/her household. Questions were asked about socioeconomic situation (SES), income and eating habits before and during the lockdown. Also, presence of high-risk persons in the household (children under 5 years of age, pregnant or lactating women, people over 65 years and plus) and a person with the history of Covid-19 within the household were also questioned. In the nutrition section, the questions were about the change of frequency in consumption of the selected food items and the reasons for changing consumption frequency during the epidemic. In this study, only milk, yogurt and cheese were considered as dairy products.
All questionnaires were anonymous. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (IR.SBMU.NNFTRI.REC.1399.066).
The descriptive analysis was performed to assess the distribution of socio-demographic status among respondents. Ordinal logistic regressions were fitted to examine which factors contributed to changes and decrease in selected dairy product. A 2-tailed p < 0.05 was considered significant. Two outcomes were considered to be dependent variables in regression models: 1-changes of weekly consumption frequency of milk, yogurt and cheese (more vs. no changes vs. less) 2- decrease in consumption frequency of the mentioned dairy products (little decrease vs. half vs. omitted) after the test for overall parallel assumption at 0.05 significance indicated that the overall parallel assumption has not been violated (p = 0.515 and p = 0.133).
The sex of the household’s head (male, female), living in urban/rural areas (urban, rural), household size (one to two, three to five, six and more), presence a high risk member in the household (none, under five years old, pregnant/ lactation, elder, more than one high risk member), occupation of the head (employee, freelance, retired, health worker, teacher, driver, other), educational status of the head (Master/ higher, Bachelor, Associate Degree, Diploma, High school, Hozavi (= preacher)), change in income (no changes, small decrease, half, cut), Covid-19 in family (no, yes) and food security status of the province (secure, semi secure, deprived) were the independent variables assessed. In all analyses, sampling weights were used to account for the complex sampling design and to allow inferences valid for the population. All analyses were performed using Stata version 16.0 (StataCorp LLC).
In total, 21,290 households were included in the analyses. Table 1 shows the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. About 41% of the respondents were the household’s head, 42% were the spouse and the rest were mostly offspring. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) of age of households’ heads was 44.7 (44.2, 44.9) and the data indicate that 10% of the households was from rural areas.
During Covid-19 epidemic lockdown, about 29%, 26% and 7% of the households had decreased their consumption frequency of milk, yogurt and cheese, respectively (Fig. 1; Table 2). The results of ordered logistic regression are presented in Table 3. The dependent variables were changes in consumption frequency of milk, yogurt and cheese following Covid-19 epidemic (increase in consumption, no changes, and decrease in consumption). The data showed that the female-headed households were 21% more likely to decrease their consumption of milk, compared with male-headed households (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05–1.4). Number of family members was not a predictor of change in the consumption frequency of milk and yogurt. However, we found that the change in income was an important predictor of changes in the consumption frequency of dairy products.
The households residing in food insecure provinces were 29%, 20% and 45% more likely to decrease their consumption of milk, yogurt and cheese as compared with those living in the food secure provinces.
The educational status of the household’s head was also statistically associated with changes in consumption frequency of the selected dairy products after Covid-19 epidemic.
About 37%, 25.3%, 19.4% of those households who reported a decrease in consumption of dairy products had fully omitted them from their food baskets.
The ordinal regression analysis was performed to identify factors in the entire study population that were associated with amount of reduction in milk, yogurt and cheese consumption. The analysis confirmed that the assumption of parallel odds was not violate (milk, p = 0.133, yogurt, p = 0.187, cheese, p = 0.098). Therefore, results are reported for the ordered logistic models in Table 4. The analysis revealed that living in rural areas was not associated with more amount of reduction in dairy product consumption. Results indicated that people who lived in semi-secure or deprived provinces were more likely to omit their milk, yogurt and cheese intake (odds ratio (OR), 1.29, 95% CI: (1.15, 1.45), OR, 1.20, 95% CI: (1.07, 1.35), OR, 1.45, 95% CI: (1.26, 1.66) respectively). Households with cut incomes were more likely to omit their dairy products from their food baskets.
This nationwide survey was conducted for the first time to evaluate dietary changes, including dairy products consumption, following lockdown due to Covid-19 epidemic in Iran. Our data regarding the mean household size and the ratio of urban to rural households are fully in accord with those in the latest population census report in Iran  suggesting that our study population was representative (~ 1%) of the households in the country.
We found that some 30% of the studied household had decreased their milk and/or yogurt consumption whereas only 7% had decreased their consumption frequency of cheese. In Iran, bread and cheese are the usual constituents of a breakfast so it was not surprising that cheese consumption showed the least change. Data regarding changes of dairy consumption during pandemic are not consistent. A study from China reported that milk consumption in those subjects who returned to work during two weeks after lockdown did not change while in those who returned to work within the third week or those who stayed at home decreased significantly. Yogurt consumption did not decrease but in those who stayed at home more than three weeks during lockdown . However, an analysis of consumer survey data during first Covid-19 lockdown from Denmark, Germany and Slovenia reported a minimal change in consumption of dairy products  and at least in one study from Italy, increased consumption of long-life milk was observed .
We found that female-headed, as compared with male-headed, households were significantly more likely to decrease their milk consumption. A similar study from Denmark also reported that dietary changes during lockdown period was more prominent in females than in males . Notwithstanding, the root causes of dietary changes, including reduction of dairy products consumption, in Iran might be quite different including their lower labor force participation and hence more economic vulnerability and hardship [17, 18].
The finding that households residing in food insecure or semi-secure provinces were significantly more likely to decrease their dairy products consumption is of great concern. Food insecurity has adverse effects on dietary quality with consequent lower intake of nutrient-dense foods including dairy products . It is believed that under conditions of food insecurity, nutrient-dense foods that may be more expensive are substituted with cheaper lower quality but usually more energy dense foods . This can lead to several chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes and lower bone density [21, 22]. Actually, food insecurity and low nutritional literacy are predictors of low intake of calcium rich dairy products .
Two major issues are raised here. Firstly, are the observed changes in dairy products consumption in Iranian households transient or they may turn to a new dietary habit? And secondly, what will be the overall health outcomes? A very important difference in Covid-19-induced changes in dietary habits in Iran, as compared with other countries, is the concomitance of the epidemic with highly accelerated inflation in Iran . Consequently, even with rather high population coverage of vaccination  and returning social relations and businesses almost to pre-epidemic conditions in Iran, it seems plausible that changes in dietary habits, including decreased dairy intakes, persist as a secular trend. The importance of this issue will be manifold when we consider that the pre-epidemic dairy products consumption in the country was far less the global average (~ 165 g/d per capita) . This amount is also very far from the recommended intake of three servings a day . The overall health outcomes of decreased dairy products consumption in Iran population can, therefore, be detrimental. Dairy products are good sources of high quality protein, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals including bioavailable calcium . The beneficial effects of dairy products on bone and metabolic health have already been documented [8, 9]. Inadequate intake and, in some households, omission of dairy products can potentially bring about serious health outcomes with heavier economic burden.
Some limitations of this study are acknowledged. The questions regarding dietary intakes were qualitative with emphasis on consumption frequency and if any changes happened in the household’s usual intake. Consequently, those households with almost no milk or yogurt in their food baskets before coronavirus epidemic would report “no change” of their usual intake. Nonetheless, the noticeable proportion of the households who reported decreased or ceased consumption of milk and yogurt will well reflect the deep impact of the epidemic on their dietary habits. The agreement of responses between self-administered and interviewer-administered questionnaires was not evaluated, either. Moreover, there was a diversity in respondents but the majority of them (83%) were either the household’s head or the spouse. Further studies to track these changes over time and to evaluate their health consequences are warranted.
In this nationwide cross-sectional survey, we found considerable decrement of dairy products consumption, especially milk and yogurt, in a high proportion of the studied households. Households residing in the food insecure or semi-secure provinces were more likely to be affected. Considering the accelerated inflation which adversely affects healthy foods accessibility in the country, these changes may become permanent with consequent unfavorable effects on both population health and dairy industries . Early interventions including fiscal policies and subsidies for dairy products, food basket aids and supplementation are advisable to the policymakers. Though calcium supplementation may seem a very feasible and fast approach to the health decision makers, sustainability of calcium supplementation is a great challenge . Meanwhile, some evidence indicates higher bioavailability of dairy products calcium, as compared with calcium supplement, for bone mineralization with a longer lasting effect on bone health . Furthermore, dairy products are much more than just a “package of calcium”. They are good sources of other minerals, vitamins and high quality protein, as well . Improvement of nutritional literacy of the population must also be considered as an effective strategy. It has been shown that increasing the awareness of the consumers positively affects their dairy products consumption .
Availability of data and materials
The datasets generated and/or analyzed during this study are not publicly available because of the use of data for further publications but are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Abrams EM, Szefler SJ. COVID-19 and the impact of social determinants of health. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2020;8(7):659–61.
Asahi K, Undurraga EA, Valdés R, Wagner R. The effect of COVID-19 on the economy: Evidence from an early adopter of localized lockdowns, Journal of global health 11 (2021).
Bennett G, Young E, Butler I, Coe S. The impact of lockdown during the COVID-19 outbreak on dietary habits in various population groups: a scoping review. Front Nutr. 2021;8:53.
Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Pivari F, Soldati L, Attinà A, Cinelli G, Leggeri C, Caparello G, Barrea L, Scerbo F, Esposito E, De Lorenzo A. Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey. J Translational Med. 2020;18(1):229.
Navarro-Pérez CF, Fernández-Aparicio Á, González-Jiménez E, Montero-Alonso M, Schmidt-RioValle J. Effects of COVID-19 lockdown on the dietary habits and lifestyle in a population in southern Spain: a cross-sectional questionnaire, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2021).
Rabiei S, Ghodsi D, Amini M, Nikooyeh B, Rasekhi H, Doustmohammadian A, Abdollahi Z, Minaie M, Sadeghi Ghotbabadi F, Neyestani TR. Changes in fast food intake in Iranian households during the lockdown period caused by COVID-19 virus emergency, National Food and Nutrition Surveillance. Food Sci Nutr. 2021;10(1):39–48.
González-Monroy C, Gómez-Gómez I, Olarte-Sánchez CM, Motrico E. Eating Behaviour Changes during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies, Int J Environ Res Public Health 18(21) (2021).
Rozenberg S, Body J-J, Bruyère O, Bergmann P, Brandi ML, Cooper C, Devogelaer J-P, Gielen E, Goemaere S, Kaufman J-M, Rizzoli R, Reginster J-Y. Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs—A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases. Calcif Tissue Int. 2016;98(1):1–17.
Timon CM, O’Connor A, Bhargava N, Gibney ER, Feeney EL. Dairy consumption and metabolic health. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):3040.
Rasekhi H, Rabiei S, Amini M, Ghodsi D, Doustmohammadian A, Nikooyeh B, Abdollahi Z, Minaie M, Sadeghi F. N. T.R., COVID-19 epidemic-induced changes of dietary intake of Iran population during lockdown period: The study protocol, National Food and Nutrition Surveillance Nutrition and. Food Sci Res. 2021;8(2):1–4.
Kolahdooz F, Najafi F. Report of a National Survey: Food security information and mapping system in Iran [Persian]. Tehran: Iran Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education; 2012.
Iran Statistics Center. The concise report of the nationwide income-espense census of Iranian urban and rural households. 2018. Population, work force and census office https://www.amar.org.ir/Portals/0/News/1398/1_ch-hvd97.pdf [In Persian], 2019.
Yang G-y, Lin X-l, Fang A-p, Zhu H-l. Eating habits and lifestyles during the initial stage of the COVID-19 lockdown in China: a cross-sectional study. Nutrients. 2021;13(3):970.
Janssen M, Chang BP, Hristov H, Pravst I, Profeta A, Millard J. Changes in food consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic: analysis of consumer survey data from the first lockdown period in Denmark, Germany, and Slovenia. Front Nutr. 2021;8:60.
Bracale R, Vaccaro CM. Changes in food choice following restrictive measures due to Covid-19, Nutrition. Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2020;30(9):1423–6.
Giacalone D, Frøst MB, Rodríguez-Pérez C, Reported Changes in Dietary Habits During the COVID-19 Lockdown in the Danish Population: The Danish COVIDiet Study, Frontiers in nutrition 7 (2020).
Majbouri M. Against the wind: labor force participation of women and economic instability in Iran. Fem Econ. 2016;22(4):31–53.
European Institute for Gender Equality. 2021 Report. COVID-19 exacerbates women’s economic vulnerability and hardship (Visited on 25/03/2022). https://eige.europa.eu/publications/gender-equality-index-2021-report/covid-19-exacerbates-womens-economic-vulnerability-and-hardship.
Hanson KL, Connor LM. Food insecurity and dietary quality in US adults and children: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(2):684–92.
Seligman HK, Schillinger D. Hunger and socioeconomic disparities in chronic disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(1):6–9.
Nagata JM, Palar K, Gooding HC, Garber AK, Bibbins-Domingo K, Weiser SD. Food insecurity and chronic disease in US young adults: findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. J Gen Intern Med. 2019;34(12):2756–62.
Eicher-Miller HA, Mason AC, Weaver CM, McCabe GP, Boushey CJ. Food insecurity is associated with diet and bone mass disparities in early adolescent males but not females in the United States. J Nutr. 2011;141(9):1738–45.
Nguyen B, Murimi MW. Lack of calcium rich foods in the diet, low knowledge on calcium level recommendations and severe food insecurity predicts low calcium intake among Vietnamese women. Appetite. 2021;163:105242.
Mahmoudinia D. The Asymmetric Effects of Monetary Policy, Currency Crises and Oil Price on Food Inflation in Iran: An Application of Quantile Regression, Macroeconomics and Finance in Emerging Market Economies (2021) 1–23.
Mohammadi A, Mollalo A, Bergquist R, Kiani B. Measuring COVID-19 vaccination coverage: an enhanced age-adjusted two-step floating catchment area model. Infect Dis poverty. 2021;10(1):1–13.
Rabiei S, Zahedi M, Abtahi M, Doustmohammadian A, Dadkhah M, Zoghi T. M. Hajigholam-saryazdi, Consumption of milk and dairy products in Iranian population; barriers and facilitators. Clin Nutr Open Sci. 2021;38:1–23.
Tunick MH, Van Hekken DL. Dairy Products and Health: Recent Insights. J Agric Food Chem. 2015;63(43):9381–8.
Wang Q, Liu C-q, Zhao Y-f, Kitsos A, Cannella M, Wang S-k, Han L. Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the dairy industry: Lessons from China and the United States and policy implications. J Integr Agric. 2020;19(12):2903–15.
Umaretiya PJ, Thacher TD, Fischer PR, Cha SS, Pettifor JM. Bone mineral density in Nigerian children after discontinuation of calcium supplementation. Bone. 2013;55(1):64–8.
Robert P, Heaney M. Dairy and bone health. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(1):82S–90S.
Xu J, Wang J, Li C. Impact of Consumer Health Awareness on Dairy Product Purchase Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability. 2022;14(1):314.
We hereby appreciate the sincere collaboration of Community Nutrition Office of the Ministry of Health, vice-chancellors and nutrition offices of all medical universities across the country and also all participants in this survey.
This study received COVID-19 research grant from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (No. 25777).
Ethics approval and informed consent to participate
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (IR.SBMU.NNFTRI.REC.1399.066). All questionnaires were online and anonymous. A written informative page was appeared before the opening of the questionnaire so filling out the questionnaire was considered as the informed participant’s consent. All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations or Declaration of Helsinki.
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
About this article
Cite this article
Nikooyeh, B., Rabiei, S., Amini, M. et al. COVID-19 epidemic lockdown-induced remarkable decrease in dairy products consumption of Iran population: does it really matter? National Food and Nutrition Surveillance. BMC Nutr 8, 122 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-022-00612-w
- Dietary habits
- Dairy products
- Consumption frequency