Pleis JR, Ward BW, Lucas JW. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2009. Vital Health Stat 10. 2010;249:1–207.
Schuppan D, Afdhal NH. Liver cirrhosis. Lancet. 2008;371(9615):838–51.
Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, editors. Feldman: Sleisinger and Fortran’s gastrointestinal and liver disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010.
Napolitano LM, Koruda MJ, Zimmerman K, McCowan K, Chang J, Meyer AA. Chronic ethanol intake and burn injury: evidence for synergistic alteration in the gut and immune integrity. J Trauma. 1995;38(2):198–207.
Lebowitz MD. Respiratory symptoms and diseases related to alcohol consumption. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1981;123:16–9.
Capps JA, Coleman GH. Influence of alcohol on prognosis of pneumonia in cook county hospital. JAMA. 1923;80:750–2.
Jong GM, Hsiue TR, Chen CR. Rapidly fatal outcome of bacteremic klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in alcoholics. Chest. 1995;107:214–7.
Leevy CM. Clinical diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of liver disease in alcoholics. Fed Proc. 1967;26(5):1474–81.
Kent JC, Devlin RD, Gutteridge DH, Retallack RW. Effect of alcohol on renal vitamin D metabolism in chickens. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1979;89(1):155–61.
Engs RC, Aldo-Benson M. The association of alcohol consumption with self-reported illness in university students. Psychol Rep. 1995;76(3 Pt 1):727–36.
Fernandez-Sola J, Junque A, Estruch R, Monforte R, Torres A, Urbano-Marquez A. High alcohol intake as a risk and prognostic factor for community-acquired pneumonia. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(15):1649–54.
Moss M, Bucher B, Moore FA, Moore EE, Parsons PE. The role of chronic alcohol abuse in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. JAMA. 1996;275(1):50–4.
Sisson JH. Alcohol and airways function in health and disease. Alcohol. 2007;41(5):293–307.
Bardag-Gorce F, French BA, Nan L, Song H, Nguyen SK, Yong H, et al. CYP2E1 induced by ethanol causes oxidative stress, proteasome inhibition and cytokeratin aggresome (Mallory body-like) formation. Exp Mol Pathol. 2006;81(3):191–201.
Holick MF. Vitamin D, deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(3):266–81.
Janssens W, Lehouck A, Carremans C, Bouillon R, Mathieu C, Decramer M. Vitamin D beyond bones in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: time to act. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179(8):630–6.
Omdahl JL, DeLuca HF. Regulation of vitamin D metabolism and function. Physiol Rev. 1973;53(2):327–72.
Jacobs ET, Van Pelt C, Forster RE, Zaidi W, Hibler EA, Galligan MA, et al. CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 polymorphisms modulate vitamin D metabolism in colon cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2013;73(8):2563–73.
Agerberth B, Grunewald J, Castanos-Velez E, Olsson B, Jörnvall H, Wigzell H, et al. Antibacterial components in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy individuals and sarcoidosis patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160(1):283–90.
Bals R, Goldman MJ, Wilson JM. Mouse beta-defensin 1 is a salt-sensitive antimicrobial peptide present in epithelia of the lung and urogenital tract. Infect Immun. 1998;66(3):1225–32.
Hansdottir S, Monick MM, Hinde SL, Lovan N, Look DC, Hunninghake GW. Respiratory epithelial cells convert inactive vitamin D to its active form: potential effects on host defense. J Immunol. 2008;181(10):7090–9.
Berger U, Wilson P, McClelland RA, Colston K, Haussler MR, Pike JW, et al. Immunocytochemical detection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptors in normal human tissues. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988;67(3):607–13.
Hughes DA, Norton R. Vitamin D and respiratory health. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;158(1):20–5.
Baeke F, van Etten E, Gysemans C, Overbergh L, Mathieu C. Vitamin D signaling in immune-mediated disorders: evolving insights and therapeutic opportunities. Mol Aspects Med. 2008;29(6):376–87.
Grant WB, Cross HS, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Moan J, Peterlik M, et al. Estimated benefit of increased vitamin D status in reducing the economic burden of disease in western Europe. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2009;99(2–3):104–13.
Wargovich MJ. Diallyl sulfide, a flavor component of garlic (Allium sativum), inhibits dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. Carcinogenesis. 1987;8(3):487–9.
Wu CC, Chung JG, Tsai SJ, Yang JH, Sheen LY. Differential effects of allyl sulfides from garlic essential oil on cell cycle regulation in human liver tumor cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42(12):1937–47.
Sheen LY, Lii CK, Sheu SF, Meng RH, Tsai SJ. Effect of the active principle of garlic—diallyl sulfide—on cell viability, detoxification capability and the antioxidation system of primary rat hepatocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 1996;34(10):971–8.
Green M, Newell O, Aboyade-Cole A, Darling-Reed S, Thomas RD. Diallyl sulfide induces the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes in the presence and/or absence of diethylstilbestrol in the breast of female ACI rats. Toxicol Lett. 2007;168(1):7–12.
Thomas RD, Green MR, Wilson C, Sadrud-Din S. Diallyl sulfide inhibits the oxidation and reduction reactions of stilbene estrogens catalyzed by microsomes, mitochondria and nuclei isolated from breast tissue of female ACI rats. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25(5):787–91.
Thomas RD, Roy D. Mitochondrial enzyme-catalyzed oxidation and reduction reactions of stilbene estrogen. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16(4):891–5.
Taubert D, Glockner R, Muller D, Schomig E. The garlic ingredient diallyl sulfide inhibits cytochrome P450 2E1 dependent bioactivation of acrylamide to glycidamide. Toxicol Lett. 2006;164(1):1–5.
Jin L, Baillie TA. Metabolism of the chemoprotective agent diallyl sulfide to glutathione conjugates in rats. Chem Res Toxicol. 1997;10(3):318–27.
Sapkota M, Hottor TK, DeVasure JM, Wyatt TA, McCaskill ML. Protective role of CYP2E1 inhibitor diallyl disulfide (DADS) on alcohol-induced malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine (M1dG) adduct formation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014;38(6):1550–8.
Green M, Wilson C, Newell O, Sadrud-Din S, Thomas R. Diallyl sulfide inhibits diethylstilbesterol-induced DNA adducts in the breast of female ACI rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005;43(9):1323–31.
Yi L, Ji XX, Lin M, Tan H, Tang Y, Wen L, et al. Diallyl disulfide induces apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells through activation of JNK mediated by reactive oxygen. Pharmazie. 2010;65(9):693–8.
Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Levi F, Negri E, Franceschi S, Talamini R, et al. Onion and garlic use and human cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(5):1027–32.
Kim JY, Kwon O. Garlic intake and cancer risk: an analysis using the food and drug administration’s evidence-based review system for the scientific evaluation of health claims. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(1):257–64.
Moazed F, Calfee CS. Environmental risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Chest Med. 2014;35(4):625–37.
Shankar K, Liu X, Singhal R, Chen JR, Nagarajan S, Badger TM, et al. Chronic ethanol consumption leads to disruption of vitamin D3 homeostasis associated with induction of renal 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1). Endocrinology. 2008;149(4):1748–56.
Song K, Coleman RA, Zhu X, Alber C, Ballas ZK, Waldschmidt TJ, et al. Chronic ethanol consumption by mice results in activated splenic T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72(6):1109–16.
Navarrette CR, Sisson JH, Nance E, Allen-Gipson D, Hanes J, Wyatt TA. Particulate matter in cigarette smoke increases ciliary axoneme beating through mechanical stimulation. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2012;25(3):159–68.
Spitzer JH, Meadows GG. Modulation of perforin, granzyme A, and granzyme B in murine natural killer (NK), IL2 stimulated NK, and lymphokine-activated killer cells by alcohol consumption. Cell Immunol. 1999;194(2):205–12.
Wyatt TA, Spurzem JR, May K, Sisson JH. Regulation of ciliary beat frequency by both PKA and PKG in bovine airway epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1998;275(4 Pt 1):L827–35.
Elliott MK, Sisson JH, West WW, Wyatt TA. Differential in vivo effects of whole cigarette smoke exposure versus cigarette smoke extract on mouse ciliated tracheal epithelium. Exp Lung Res. 2006;32(3–4):99–118.
Elliott MK, Sisson JH, Wyatt TA. Effects of cigarette smoke and alcohol on ciliated tracheal epithelium and inflammatory cell recruitment. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;36(4):452–9.
McCaskill ML, Romberger DJ, DeVasure J, Boten J, Sisson JH, Bailey KL, et al. Alcohol exposure alters mouse lung inflammation in response to inhaled dust. Nutrients. 2012;4(7):695–710.
Zhang P, Bagby GJ, Happel KI, Raasch CE, Nelson S. Alcohol abuse, immunosuppression, and pulmonary infection. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2008;1(1):56–67.
Wang Y, Walter G, Herting E, Agerberth B, Johansson J. Antibacterial activities of the cathelicidins prophenin (residues 62 to 79) and LL-37 in the presence of a lung surfactant preparation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48(6):2097–100.
Guilbert TW, Denlinger LC. Role of infection in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2010;4(1):71–83.
Gombart AF, Borregaard N, Koeffler HP. Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. FASEB J. 2005;19(9):1067–77.
White M, Mankan A, Lawless MW, O’Dwyer MJ, McManus R, Ryan T. Mortality in humans with pneumonia and sepsis is related to an uncompensated anti-inflammatory response to infection. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(13):1468–9.
Gombart AF. The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection. Future Microbiol. 2009;4(9):1151–65.
Wientroub S, Winter CC, Wahl SM, Wahl LM. Effect of vitamin D deficiency on macrophage and lymphocyte function in the rat. Calcif Tissue Int. 1989;44(2):125–30.
DeLuca HF. Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(6 Suppl):1689S–96.
Puerta-Guardo H, De la Cruz H, Hernández De la Cruz SI, Rosales VH, Ludert JE, del Angel RM. The 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 reduces dengue virus infection in human myelomonocyte (U937) and hepatic (huh-7) cell lines and cytokine production in the infected monocytes. Antiviral Res. 2012;94(1):57–61.
Lam NN, Triliana R, Sawyer RK, Atkins GJ, Morris HA, O’Loughlin PD, et al. Vitamin D receptor overexpression in osteoblasts and osteocytes prevents bone loss during vitamin D-deficiency. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;144 Pt A:128–31.
Terelius Y, Norsten-Hoog C, Cronholm T, Ingelman-Sundberg M. Acetaldehyde as a substrate for ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;179(1):689–94.
Jaeschke H, Gores GJ, Cederbaum AI, Hinson JA, Pessayre D, Lemasters JJ. Mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Toxicol Sci. 2002;65(2):166–76.
Wang T, Shankar K, Bucci TJ, Warbritton A, Mehendale HM. Diallyl sulfide inhibition of CYP2E1 does not rescue diabetic rats from thioacetamide-induced mortality. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001;173(1):27–37.
Niemela O, Parkkila S, Pasanen M, Viitala K, Villanueva JA, Halsted CH. Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and generation of protein-aldehyde adducts are associated with sex-dependent sensitivity to alcohol-induced liver disease in micropigs. Hepatology. 1999;30(4):1011–7.
Niemela O, Parkkila S, Yla-Herttuala S, Villanueva J, Ruebner B, Halsted CH. Sequential acetaldehyde production, lipid peroxidation, and fibrogenesis in micropig model of alcohol-induced liver disease. Hepatology. 1995;22(4 Pt 1):1208–14.
Aloia JF, Talwar SA, Pollack S, Yeh J. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation in African American women. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(14):1618–23.
Lee H, Andalibi A, Webster P, Moon SK, Teufert K, Kang SH, et al. Antimicrobial activity of innate immune molecules against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. BMC Infect Dis. 2004;4(1):12.
Janssens W, Bouillon R, Claes B, Carremans C, Lehouck A, Buysschaert I, et al. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in COPD and correlates with variants in the vitamin D-binding gene. Thorax. 2010;65(3):215–20.